Key PointsHydrogen bonds are solid intermolecular forces developed when a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegative atom approaches a adjacent electronegative atom.Greater electronegativity that the hydrogen bond acceptor will lead to an increase in hydrogen-bond strength.The hydrogen bond is one of the the strongest intermolecular attractions, however weaker than a covalent or one ionic bond.Hydrogen bonds space responsible for holding together DNA, proteins, and also other macromolecules.

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Termshydrogen bondThe attraction in between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a extremely electronegative atom (such together nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine) and also another adjacent electronegative atom.electronegativityThe propensity of an atom or molecule to attract electrons towards itself, type dipoles, and thus kind bonds.intermolecularA type of interaction in between two various molecules.

Forming a Hydrogen Bond

A hydrogen link is the electromagnetic attraction created in between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom attached to a very electronegative atom and also another surrounding electronegative atom. A hydrogen bond is a type of dipole-dipole interaction; that is not a true chemical bond. These attractions deserve to occur in between molecules (intermolecularly) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecularly).

Hydrogen bonding in waterThis is a space-filling round diagram that the interactions between separate water molecules.

Hydrogen link Donor

A hydrogen atom attached come a fairly electronegative atom is a hydrogen bond donor. This electronegative atom is commonly fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen. The electronegative atom attractive the electron cloud from about the hydrogen cell nucleus and, by decentralizing the cloud, pipeline the hydrogen atom v a hopeful partial charge. Due to the fact that of the little size the hydrogen relative to other atoms and also molecules, the resulting charge, though just partial, is stronger. In the molecule ethanol, there is one hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom, which is very electronegative. This hydrogen atom is a hydrogen bond donor.

Hydrogen bond Acceptor

A hydrogen bond results as soon as this strong partial positive charge attractive a lone pair of electron on one more atom, which i do not care the hydrogen bond acceptor. An electronegative atom such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen is a hydrogen link acceptor, nevertheless of even if it is it is external inspection to a hydrogen atom or not. Better electronegativity the the hydrogen bond agree will create a more powerful hydrogen bond. The diethyl ether molecule has an oxygen atom the is no bonded come a hydrogen atom, making it a hydrogen link acceptor.

Hydrogen bond donor and also hydrogen link acceptorEthanol contains a hydrogen atom that is a hydrogen link donor because it is external inspection to an electronegative oxygen atom, i m sorry is really electronegative, so the hydrogen atom is slightly positive. Diethyl ether has an oxygen atom that is a hydrogen link acceptor due to the fact that it is no bonded to a hydrogen atom and so is slightly negative.

A hydrogen attached come carbon can likewise participate in hydrogen bonding once the carbon atom is bound come electronegative atoms, together is the instance in chloroform (CHCl3). As in a molecule whereby a hydrogen is attached come nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine, the electronegative atom attracts the electron cloud from about the hydrogen cell nucleus and, through decentralizing the cloud, leaves the hydrogen atom with a confident partial charge.

Interactive: Hydrogen BondingExplore hydrogen bond forming in between polar molecules, such as water. Hydrogen bonds are displayed with dotted lines. Display partial charges and also run the model. Where perform hydrogen bond form? Try changing the temperature of the model. How does the pattern of hydrogen bonding describe the lattice that renders up ice cream crystals?

Applications because that Hydrogen Bonds

Hydrogen bonds happen in inorganic molecules, such as water, and organic molecules, such as DNA and proteins. The 2 complementary strands that DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds in between complementary nucleotides (A&T, C&G). Hydrogen bonding in water contributes to its unique properties, consisting of its high boiling allude (100 °C) and surface tension.

Water droplets ~ above a leafThe hydrogen bond formed in between water molecules in water droplets space stronger 보다 the various other intermolecular forces in between the water molecules and the leaf, contributing come high surface ar tension and distinct water droplets.

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In biology, intramolecular hydrogen bonding is partially responsible because that the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins and nucleic acids. The hydrogen bonds aid the proteins and nucleic acids kind and maintain certain shapes.

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