Dendrochronology offers annual, or in rare cases, subannual resolution, conversely, radiocarbon date provides eras with uncertainties of not less than 10years and an ext commonly 50–100years.

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From: Landslide Hazards, Risks and also Disasters, 2015

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D. Smith, D. Lewis, in Encyclopedia that Quaternary Science, 2007

Dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) is a an approach pioneered by Andrew E. Douglass following his discovery of the date capabilities that tree rings in the early twentieth century. Douglass introduced these approaches to north American and European scientists, that then appropriated the procedure to day the event of natural events and also the building of constructed structures. The scientific research of dendrochronology faces the dating and also studying of annual growth layers, or tree rings, in woody trees and also shrubs. It has actually gone v three general periods of advance that has actually led to raised application and methodological advances. As result of the yearly resolution feasible throughout a tree-ring record, dendrochronological analyses administer both reliable and ubiquitous archives for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.


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DENDROCHRONOLOGY


B.L. Coulthard, D.J. Smith, in Encyclopedia of Quaternary scientific research (Second Edition), 2013

Introduction

Dendrochronology is the science that faces the dating and study the the annual growth increments, or tree rings, in woody trees and shrubs. As soon as the radial growth of trees is influenced by a typical limiting factor, tree-ring variations room replicated throughout forest stands and cross-dating, or sample matching, that these collection can provide an accurate record of yearly growth trends. This data deserve to be supplied to date events or explain variations in ecological conditions. Due to the yearly resolution and also spatial breadth that tree-ring records, dendrochronological analyses administer both reliable and also ubiquitous archives because that dating past events and for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.


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DENDROCHRONOLOGY


M. Bridge, in Encyclopedia of Geology, 2005

Introduction

In recent decades tree-ring studies have opened up a whole brand-new area that climatic and also other ecological reconstructions at assorted geographical and temporal scales. These generally go under the heading the dendrochronology – although some world reserve this term only for the use of tree ring in date studies. Dendrochronological dating counts on the truth that whilst each tree-ring series reflects peculiarities the the life history of the separation, personal, instance tree, trees of the same types growing at the very same time over large areas respond likewise to the weather proficient both during an individual growth period, and perhaps additionally to conditioning transparent previous seasons.

Not all species have plainly distinct ring boundaries, and also those there is no them room of small use come dendrochronology. Some types not just do have actually clear rings, but may have actually clear departments within the rings, such that the ring deserve to be divided into the ‘earlywood’ which forms during the spring and also early summer, and also the ‘latewood’ which develops through the summer and also early autumn. Whilst countless studies exploit the totality ring, in recent years many have concentrated on part of the ring, typically the latewood, i m sorry is usually much more independent the the influences of previous development in that variations. Most dendrochronological work has been excellent in warm zones, although part tropical trees have actually been used.

With historic timber, samples of wood from naturally kept timbers e.g. In river gravels, peat bogs and similar environments, usually take the form of cross-sections reduced from tribe remains. Historic wood in instances such together standing buildings is typically cored down the radius that the trunk. Plenty of of the researches outlined below, however, count on samples indigenous living, or recently felled, trees. Living trees have the right to be sampled by extracting radial cores, typically of the bespeak of 5 mm in diameter, take away using particularly designed manually activate borers. The tree ‘compartmentalizes’ the wound, sealing it turn off from the remainder of the life tissue, and also any damage to the tree is typically minimal.

During the so late 1960s and also the 1970s, the advance of radiocarbon dating and also the realization that the development of radiocarbon in the atmosphere had no been constant through time were the stimuli for number of laboratories to attempt to develop long (multimillennial) tree-ring chronologies. These listed wood samples of known calendar age with which come investigate alters in radiocarbon levels through time, and then come calibrate the radiocarbon time-scale. This has made possible ‘wiggle matching’, which in suitable circumstances can provide much more accurate radiocarbon dates.

As the chronologies to be being created it to be noticed that some periods had actually scarce wood continues to be which was assumed to reflect ecological changes, either in the vigour that tree growth, or in the problems that favour the preservation of the wood. When several lengthy chronologies ended up being available, it was noticed that specific periods showed common growth responses over large geographical areas. Because that example, a downturn in oak growth lasting around a decade after 1628 bc was reported in irish bog-oaks. This was subsequently uncovered to take place at the same time in oaks cultivation in north England and northern Germany.

This decade verified the lowest growth rates for numerous centuries in every locality, and also must as such reflect a large climatic forcing agent. It was said that the most likely candidate because that this particular period of growth reduction to be the Santorini (Thera) volcano eruption, often linked to transforms in the Minoan civilization. Agree this as date that certain event to be controversial, yet even if part were unable to expropriate this hypothesis, some major factor had actually to be responsible for the it was observed response.

Throughout the rapid development of dendrochronology in the so late twentieth century, plenty of studies focused on dating discrete events such together volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslides, avalanches, forest fires, floods, serious frosts etc. V history, giving crucial background information about the frequency and intensity of these phenomena, and also in plenty of instances giving the first calendar dates for them. These occasions may be represented in the tree-ring series by sudden development rate changes, scars, or abnormal cells.

Longer-term variations and rates of readjust for such phenomena together river-flow changes, lake-level changes, saltwater ingression, changes in ocean currents through time (mapped by dating driftwood), glacial advancement and retreat (reflected in subfossil trunks from valley sides), erosion rates, human forest clearance and also the like have actually all been subjects for dendrochronological study. Periods of building of primitive lakeside settlements have actually been discovered to be coincident over areas of central Europe, maybe reflecting migration trends in response to climatic changes.


Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, as implied by the name, is just applicable come timber. That exploits the characteristics of certain species of tree (notably oak and also pine) of producing annual rings the width of which varies with regional weather and also water supply conditions. These patterns of rings have the right to be compiled by cross-matching measurements from tree of well-known felling date, backwards with time, v wood from various other sources, such as building timbers, to develop up master curves the ring broad pattern versus age, as illustrated in figure 3. Samples the unknown date can then be dated by comparison through this master. Such curves space normally particular to varieties and come region, although there has been some minimal success v interspecies cross-dating.


*

Where material from a website with considerable timber survive cannot it is in tied straight to one of the existing understand chronologies, the is sometimes possible to construct a ‘floating’ chronology that deserve to be supplied as a family member dating tool. There space a few periods wherein the development ring sample is for this reason distinctive regarding produce a ‘signature’, practically instantly datable ~ above the communication of a small variety of rings, but for the most component dendrochronology requires large samples (90+ rings). Even given this quantity of material, and a perfect local understand curve, the an approach is not always successful, however where the is it returns a very specific date, offering not only the precise year, however even the season of growth of the outermost ring present.

In actual terms, this obvious precision may not typical much; the number can only apply to the outermost ring present, i m sorry is no necessarily the initial surface the the tree. In fact, in most circumstances, the an ext vulnerable sapwood at the very least will have been trimmed prior to use. In building timbers it is commonly only this layer i beg your pardon is removed, leave the ‘waney edge’, the boundary in between sapwood and heartwood. There are well-defined formulae because that the number of sapwood rings in various species, which can be applied as a mediate if the waney edge is present, but if the is lacking it is difficult to quantify how countless years of development have been lost.

In addition, similar to radiocarbon, dendrochronology deserve to only date the development of the wood, no its use. A dendro date gives at ideal the year that felling. That can offer no clues of time elapsed in seasoning, storage, or feasible repeated reuse (a frequent occasion with big timbers). Furthermore, any self-respecting forger will choose wood the a suitable age as a raw material.

Dating is possible over the entirety calendar range for which master curves are available, however the size of sample required method that the method is seldom applied to samples more than a couple of thousand year old.

Another important property of the long dendrochronological curves now available (see section on radiocarbon because that details) is the they provide a proxy climatic document for their region; whilst not always easy come interpret, they execute give direct evidence of the nature the climatic readjust over time for hundreds of years.


Jean-Christophe Balouet, ... Robert Morrison, in introduction to ecological Forensics (Second Edition), 2007

15.2.6 CONCLUSIONS

Dendrochronology, or the use of ring trends to evaluate the ages of trees, has remained in practice because the beginning of the 1900s and holds good potential for forensic applications. Without direct testimony or thorough document keeping, dendroecology may be the only technique that can provide, as means to estimate the date of a contaminant through precision to within a year.

The tree-ring chronologies define the pattern and background of growth suppression and also release that deserve to be connected with aging and also natural disturbances. As soon as contamination events occur, they are reflected in tree rings. A disturbance in development is reflected in ring width and also could be linked with the build-up of a particular element or chemical in that specific ring. Subsequently, the an easy measurement and chemical analysis of the tree rings may specifically allude out the specific time when the contaminants entered the tree v a precision come the year and, in part cases, to the expansion season. Wherever applicable, dendroecology have the right to be used as one independent heat of proof in a forensic investigation.


Dendrochronology depends on the reality that trees cultivation in areas with solid seasonal climates can form distinct annual growth rings. Information around these fads is acquired from increment cores or by complete or partial cross sections the the stem (see conversation of sampling, below). In conifers (gymnosperms), reproductive cambium cells type large, thin-walled earlywood tracheids throughout the beforehand stages that the farming season, which generally serve the carry of nutrients and also water. Later in the season, smaller and also denser latewood tracheids space developed. This layers space darker in appearance due to thicker cell walls and serve to rise the stability of the tree. Tissue formation in broadleaved trees (angiosperms or flower plants) is more complicated and diverse than in gymnosperms. In addition to the tracheids discovered in gymnosperms, the splitting cambium of broadleaved trees likewise produces vessels. Figure 1 illustrates the appearance of tree rings in conifers (Figures 1(a) and also 1(b)) and broadleaved tree (Figures 1(c) and 1(d)).



Figure 1. Microsections that tree rings ready from conifer and broadleaved trees: In (a) Picea abies and also (b) Pinus cembra, bands the tracheids kind the individual increment rings. In broadleaved trees, tracheids and also vessels are developed by the splitting cambium. Depending upon the circulation of ship in the ring, us distinguish in between (c) ring-porous (Fraxinus excelsior) and also (d) diffuse-porous angiosperms (Acer pseudoplatanus). Reproduced from Stefanini, M.C., 2004. Spatio-temporal evaluation of a facility landslide in the northern Apennines (Italy) by means of dendrochronology. Geomorphology 63, 191–202.


The width and also character of every tree ring are affected by biotic and also abiotic factors. Biotic components include the genetic makeup and the aging that trees and are individual because that each types and each tree. Abiotic factors include a wide variety of environmental variables, for example, light, temperature, water, nutrient supply, or affect of strong wind, i beg your pardon are an ext or less typical for all trees cultivation at a specific site (Fritts, 1976). Therefore, trees farming at the very same site have the right to record the same ecological impacts and fluctuations (e.g., temperature or precipitation) in your tree-ring series. Much more details ~ above tree expansion can be discovered in Cook and also Kairiukstis (1990) or Schweingruber (1996).


Dendrochronology is based on the fact that, in areas with seasonal climates, trees lay down yearly rings as they grow. Radial tree development occurs together vascular cambium cell divide. Throughout the winter months the cambium is dormant and also cell production ceases until warmer and/or wetter spring conditions stimulate a new growth of cambium. Xylem cells created at the beginning of the expansion season, referred to as “early wood,” often tend to be large and thin walled. Hot and also drier summer conditions reason the expansion of cambium to slow and also the cambium cells come to be smaller. At the exact same time, thick-walled xylem, recognized as “late wood” cells space produced. There is a marked difference in between early wood and also late wood cells, and this makes it feasible to identify annual growth increments. Every year's development is therefore represented by two kinds that rings: a ring consisted of of a broad, light-colored band that represents the early wood that grows in the spring and also summer, and a narrow, dark-colored band that represents the late lumber layer formed during reduced growth task in the fall and winter (Fig. 2). Trees tend to grow broader rings during “favorable” year (i.e., year with enough warmth, moisture, and nutrients) and also narrower rings throughout “adverse” years (years of drought, disease, and cold summers). The sample of broad and narrow rings is repetitive in trees cultivation throughout woodland regions. This enables tree rings to it is in matched, or correlated, native tree to tree, and even to dead trees, which in turn allows tree-ring chronologies come be developed over higher lengths that time than the life that individual trees (Table 1). Of course, tree-ring researchers look for out really long-lived trees, such as bristlecone pines, indigenous which to take it cores for their studies. The cores space extracted from little holes drilled right into the tree by a tool dubbed an increment borer. This holes execute not usually injury the tree; castle are quickly filled-in through resin, i m sorry seals the wound. Return there space differences in between the anatomical frameworks of angiosperms and gymnosperms, both type of trees are offered in dendrochronology. Bristlecone pines, some various other conifers, some European oaks and new Zealand kauris may live several thousand years. By piecing together tree-ring chronologies from living and dead tree (trees whose lives overlapped at some point in the past), chronologies have been extended ago to 70,000 year in part cases. Tree-ring collection of europe oaks (Quercus robur and also Q. Petraea) have listed a reliable structure for chronometric dating and also reconstruction of previous climate and environment (Haneca et al., 2009). Lengthy European oak chronologies sheathe the whole Holocene, and also the network of date oaks is being improved.



Fig. 2. (Left) Cross-section the a tree trunk, showing yearly growth rings. The light-colored band represents the timber that grows in the spring and also summer; the narrow, dark-colored tape represents the lumber layer formed during reduced growth task in the fall and also winter. (Upper right) photograph of bristlecone pine. (Lower right) picture of old kauri tree stump excavated native a bog in new Zealand.

(Left) photo courtesy of creative Commons. (Upper right) Courtesy the the us Geological Survey. (Lower right) Courtesy of creative Commons.
Dendrochronology principleExplanationUniformitarianismLimiting factorsAggregate tree growthEcological amplitudeSite selectionCross-datingReplication
This principle says that the physical and biological procedures that cause variations in annual tree-ring growth today room the exact same as those the existed in the past
Annual tree-ring growth proceeds no faster than that permitted by the many limiting eco-friendly factor (e.g., drought, air temperature, snowpack, soil condition). For this reason tree rings may be cross-dated only if one or more environmental factors becomes significantly limiting, last long enough, and also are widespread
Tree-ring development rates are impacted by several factors, consisting of age-related development trends, climatic influences, pulses that a local and also stand-wide disturbance components (fires, insect outbreaks), and also unexplained year-to-year variability
Tree-ring development is particularly sensitive come environmental determinants at the altitudinal and also latitudinal borders of a species’ range. Thus, development is often restricted by summer air temperature in high-mountains and also at high latitudes
Tree-ring-width collection that are very variable and controlled by a limiting eco-friendly factor have the right to be selected for, based upon site-specific characteristics. Because that example, tree found growing on ceiling rocky outcrops are often sensitive to drought conditions. Conversely, trees growing in settings with stable moisture commonly show tiny annual sport in ring widths
Cross-dating procedures ensure that individual tree ring are associated with an exact year of formation. Cross-dating provides a method of dating tree-ring series of uncertain age and also to develop chronologies extending beyond the period of life trees. Undated wood samples deserve to be assigned ages by cross-dating to chronologies of recognized age
Cross-dating samples indigenous multiple trees minimizes the probability that lacking or false ring from individual trees will be incorporated into a chronology. Obtaining many cores native a tree reduces the “noise” in the tree-ring signal coming from one erratic signal particular to a provided tree

After Coulthard BL, smith DJ (2013) Dendrochronology. In: Elias SA and Mock C. (eds.), Encyclopedia the Quaternary Science, pp. 453–458. Amsterdam: Elsevier.


Tree-ring sequences, sometimes covering thousands of years, do not necessarily begin with the modern-day day. Because that instance, a sequence can represent the interval of 2.5–5 ka. This type of sample might come from an old tree stump or log in that has actually been maintained in lake sediments, a peat bog, or it may be a piece of lumber that was used to make wooden boats, implements, furniture, or house beams in an ancient human settlement. Uneven individual rings are radiometrically dated, such a tree-ring document remains a “floating chronology,” because that which the beginning and end dates of the record are unknown. Floating chronologies can regularly be tied to firmly-dated tree-ring documents through cross-matching the records. This is made feasible because the trees of a given types that grew in a specific an ar will re-superstructure the very same pattern of small and vast rings, associated with intervals of unfavorable and favorable cultivation conditions, respectively. Composite records of tree-rings are made v the mix of multiple tree-ring chronologies in a given region.


Kauri trees (Agathis australis) room endemic to brand-new Zealand. Kauris can thrive to circumferences of up to 14 m and also can with 52 m in height. The oldest modern kauri is about 2000 year old, however most of these trees live 600–1000 years. Because the 1970s, researchers have taken tree-ring samples from old kauri tree from bogs on brand-new Zealand's phibìc Island (Fig. 2). Some of these trees fell throughout the late Pleistocene, rather in the Holocene. They have actually been preserved by being covered over in the anoxic sediments that peat bogs. Lorrey et al. (2018) the evaluation the results of research study on the date of these ancient tree trunks. The hardwood was dated v a mix of 14C analysis, cross-dating of records with floating chronologies, and also those with established ages, and by compare of the δ18O record from yearly layers of tree rings with lengthy δ18O documents from Antarctic and also Greenland ice cream cores (Fig. 3). Swamp kauri shop that expectations the critical interglacial-glacial cycle have actually the potential to yield multi-millennia tree-ring chronologies. Composite records that span huge parts of an interstadial interval throughout the last glaciation (Marine Isotope phase 3—MIS3) might be possible. This is because approximately 65 fossil lumber specimens from one an ar have yielded 4 floating chronologies that span around 6000 years. It has been found that the trees prospered before and during MIS3. Radiocarbon dating and oxygen isotope comparisons with Antarctic ice core records suggest that these tree-ring records autumn within the expression of 60–27 ka. Thus, these chronologies represent some of the earliest tree-ring records in the world.



Because tree-ring date is so reliable and also accurate, it has actually been supplied as a an approach of calibrating radiocarbon dating. This is done by chiseling-out pieces of lumber from individual ring of recognized age and also 14C date the wood. From this studies, it has actually been learned that radiocarbon years and calendar years carry out not match up v the last 20,000 + years. In fact, there space plateaus in radiocarbon years, specifically one in between 11 and also 10 ka. CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere have been increasing since the finish of the critical glaciation, together detected in balloon of old air trapped in glacial ice on the Greenland ice cream cap and elsewhere. There was a change in the lot of 14C in the atmosphere in between 1 and 10 ka, bring about a plateau in 14C dates from this interval. This flux in 14C concentrations in the atmosphere was driven by a release of CO2 indigenous the world's seas towards the end of the last glaciation. The CO2 dissolved in s water at that time was reasonably low in 14C, for this reason it exit CO2 come the atmosphere that was similarly poor in 14C. This diminished the difference in between the 14C age and calendar-year period of plant and animal fossils that resided in that era.

Because of this, the remains of flora, fauna, and organic sediments native the finish of the critical glaciation all often tend to give comparable radiocarbon ages. Results of tree-ring studies, in mix with coral reef studies, have detailed a means of calibrating radiocarbon ages back to about 20 ka.

Paleoclimate data acquired from tree ring is the best-dated proof of an altering environments. This has been best-developed in the American Southwest, since hundreds the tree ring chronologies have been created throughout that region (Fritts, 1976, 1991). Over there are certain pitfalls to the use of dendroclimatology, however. Tree ring are finest at denote intervals of short rainfall, quite than those the high rainfall. As soon as trees space stressed by lack of water, castle lay under markedly narrower rings, whereas as soon as there is an excess of rainfall, tree ring widths may be close come the average size. Throughout extremely adverse year (i.e., throughout extreme drought), trees might cease to create rings. This pipeline a void in the tree ring record, so it is challenging or difficult to recognize the size of the drought. Across the Pacific, Kauri tree-ring records have been displayed to be reliable signs of the El Niño southern Oscillation, which strongly affects new Zealand weather patterns.

Fire scars in tree are burned patches that wood produced when a tree is partly burned, but survives, and grows brand-new rings end the scar. These scars have the right to be dated to rebuild the history of fires in a offered region. Likewise, floods, landslides, and also other natural disasters can damage trees and thereby leaving a document of past events.


M.F. Merigliano, ... M.L. Scott, in writing on Geomorphology, 2013

12.10.2.1 dating of Tree Establishment, Injury, and Shifts in expansion Rate

Tree-ring dating requires the observation of the number or personality of tree rings to date the event of an event that affected the facility or expansion of the tree. This group of approaches takes benefit of the lengthy life of plenty of trees, the yearly nature that tree ring in many types in warm regions, and also the truth that the macro- and micro-anatomy of hardwood are influenced in predictable ways by disturbances the interest, such together floods, droughts, and ice impact.

The number of annual ring in a tree main point or cross section is an calculation of the number of years due to the fact that the facility of the tree (Stokes and also Smiley, 1968). This fact can be supplied to recognize the time and location of occurrence of conditions perfect for tree establishment, which is especially helpful information if such conditions are rarely in the landscape. In addition, establishment days can be supplied to determine a minimum period for the establishment surface or a maximum period of an overlying sediment deposit (Hupp, 1988; Hupp and also Simon, 1991; Friedman et al., 2005b). Difficulties encountered utilizing this method include lack of yearly pattern of wood deposition in part species, false and missing rings (Patterson, 1959), the difficulty of locating the wood created in the very first year the life, which may be small, buried, rotten, or consumed by herbivores (Everitt, 1968, 1995), and the lessened distinctness that tree rings after burial (Friedman et al., 2005b).


When floating ice cream or overwhelming debris collides through a tree, bark might be damaged or removed, and also the cambium will produce a characteristics scar to cover the injury (Shroder, 1980). Count the ring in the scar reveals the year and sometimes season of damages (Gottesfeld and Gottesfeld, 1990), and the key of the optimal of the scar may reveal one approximate phase of the circulation that lugged the debris, permitting analysis of overwhelming frequency where gaging station records are lacking (Harrison and also Reid, 1967; Hupp, 1988; number 1). This technique may be complex because of the limited locations on the flood level where moving debris can encounter a tree (Gottesfeld and also Gottesfeld, 1990), because huge floods may have removed scarred trees, or due to the fact that old scars may have end up being externally invisible by healing over the injury. The key of the scar might underestimate the top stage because the injury happened before or ~ the peak; conversely, the key of the scar may overestimate the peak stage because the debris to be floating above the water surface or due to the fact that of the local boost in water surface on the upstream next of a tree. Finally, tilting of stems by floods cause a readjust in the direction that stem expansion resulting in asymmetrical ring growth along a stem cross section (Sigafoos, 1964; Hupp, 1988). The year of onset of this asymmetrical growth dates the tilting event.



The anatomy of individual tree rings may record the incident of past events. Relatively large rings show occurrence that favorable growing conditions. Annual growth increment have the right to be influenced by countless factors including temperature; availability of water, light or nutrients; floor anoxia; death of competitors; and an illness or injury (Sigafoos, 1964; Stokes and Smiley, 1968; Hupp, 1988). Since flooding may influence most of these factors, linking annual growth come flooding have the right to be complex. Flooding may boost (Reily and also Johnson, 1982; Dudek et al., 1998) or suppress (Martens, 1993) yearly ring width. Instrument of development suppression by floods include advancement of floor anoxia from lengthy inundation and also physical damage to the tree. Instrument of growth improvement by floods include reduction the drought, removed of competitors, and also fertilization. Finally, the present year's expansion may be affected by conditions in past years.


Unusual occasions may impact the usual seasonal shift from large to little vessels. A slice v an yearly ring perpendicular come the direction the stem development (Figure 2) shows plentiful circles of differing diameter. This circles room cross part of the xylem vessels, which transfer water increase from the root to the leaves. The diameter the xylem ship is restricted by the tendency of the water pillar in a courage to rest under high stress and anxiety (Pockman and also Sperry, 2000). Narrow vessels can sustain higher tensions, while broader vessels transfer water more rapidly. Therefore, xylem vessels are larger in the spring once water is abundant (Panshin and also de Zeeuw, 1980). Flooding may transform this normal progression in a characteristic fashion enabling identification that flood rings (Yanosky, 1983; Hupp, 1988; St. George and Nielsen, 2000), yet it is important to be able to distinguish flood rings from ring abnormalities caused by other components including insect outbreaks (Sutton and also Tardif, 2005).


Figure 2. Tamarisk stem cross section cut 2.8 m listed below the ground surface. Following initial burial of 68 cm in 1969, ring-width decreased, vessel size increased, and also annual transitions ended up being less distinct. After ~ a 2nd burial by 41 centimeter in 1972, annual transitions ended up being indistinguishable.

Reproduced from Friedman, J.M., Vincent, K.R., Shafroth, P.B., 2005b. Date floodplain sediments utilizing tree-ring response to burial. Planet Surface Processes and Landforms 30(9), 1077–1091, v permission from Wiley.

B.L. Coulthard, D.J. Smith, in Encyclopedia of Quaternary science (Second Edition), 2013

Abstract

Dendroglaciology provides tree-ring dating principles to assign ages to glacier-related sediments, landforms, and also landscape processes. This article reviews some usual dendroglaciological methodologies and also illustrates just how tree rings are offered to explain episodes that glacier expansion, retreat, and/or downwasting. Used dendroglaciology gives a means for occurring proxy reconstructions that summer, winter, and also net yearly mass balance that highlight the affect of multiscale climate forcing instrument on both trees and glaciers. Combined with tree-ring date of glacier deposits, this records carry out a an ext complete temporal and spatial photo of paleoglacier–climate relationships, valuable for understanding how glaciers might respond to future climates.


M. Worbes, in Encyclopedia of woodland Sciences, 2004

Introduction

Tree-ring evaluation or dendrochronology is both an old and a modern-day science. Just counting tree ring sounds simple, but in the context of forest dynamics tree age is an important and an useful parameter. The sample of tree-ring width, timber density, aspect content, and also other functions store information on past expansion conditions. Biomonitoring is the enjoy of growth determinants by biological organisms and their readjust in time. Tree-ring evaluation extends the monitoring period considerably right into the past and could be taken into consideration as retreat biomonitoring.

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For a long time dendrochronology (from Greek: dendros, tree; chronos, time, and also logos, science) was linked with the date of old houses, paintings, and archaeological samples. In recent decades yet it has end up being a scientific research with a broad range of applications such as worldwide climate change, canopy process decline, the carbon cycle, and many others. Due to its manifold applications for other branches of scientific research dendrochronology is sometimes thought about as simply a device for archaeology, arts history, biology, climatology, forestry, glaciology, etc. The advancement of techniques like X-ray densitometry, isotope analysis, one-of-a-kind statistical evaluation for tree ring interpretation, etc., with each other with new aspects in the theory of tree-ring development mean the tree-ring evaluation should be considered as an independent branch of earth science.