Cylinder heads and also blocks might need to it is in resurfaced to reclaim flatness or to improve the surface ar finish, or milled to adjust the deck height for a variety of reasons. The deck surface ar on the head or block might need to it is in resurfaced if the surface isn’t smooth or flat. A head may need to it is in resurfaced after ~ welds or various other repairs have been made, or milled to boost the compression ratio.

You are watching: Do cylinder heads need to be resurfaced

Cylinder heads and also blocks might need to be resurfaced to reclaim flatness or to improve the surface ar finish, or milled to adjust the deck elevation for a range of reasons.

The deck surface on the head or block may need to be resurfaced if the surface isn’t smooth or flat. A head may need to be resurfaced after welds or various other repairs have actually been made, or milled to boost the compression ratio. The manifold surface on a head might need to it is in cleaned up because of corrosion or erosion, or the angle changed slightly to far better align through an aftermarket input manifold. The deck surface ar on the block might need to it is in resurfaced.
Whatever the factor is for resurfacing this parts, you want to perform it quickly, efficiently and correctly. Failure here deserve to be an extremely expensive, due to the fact that once metal has been eliminated there is no putting it back.

MisalignmentBefore you deserve to resurface or mill a cylinder head or block, you have to square the up v your resurfacing equipment. You can’t just plunk a head or block ~ above a fixture, clamp that down and start cutting. You have to line it up so the surface ar is parallel v the cutter head fore-and-aft, and side-to-side. As soon as you’ve completed that girlfriend can collection your depth the cut and also proceed v a rough reduced or finish cut.
One mistake come avoid here is moving the head after ~ you have actually aligned it. With some older formats of fixtures, the plot of clamping under the head to do it rigid deserve to disturb the alignment. The fixturing on some newer machines enables you to do the component rigid, then align it prior to you cut it. One resurfacing device also has an indicator gauge top top the rail the makes collection up quicker and easier for specific resurfacing.

You also want the part (and the resurfacer) come be as rigid as possible, v no activity while that is gift resurfaced. Any movement will influence the surface finish.
Wrong surface FinishTo seal properly, a head gasket calls for a surface complete that is within a recommended range. The specifications vary depending on the kind of head gasket. If the surface is too rough, or in some situations too smooth, the gasket may not seal properly and leak or fail.

One usual mistake to avoid here is no looking increase the recommended specifications because that a particular engine and/or a particular kind of head gasket.

As a rule, the encourage surface end up for a traditional composition format soft-face head gasket in one engine with actors iron heads and also block is 60 to 120 microinches Ra (roughness average). But the recommended surface finish for the same form of head gasket in one engine through an aluminum head top top a actors iron block is smoother, generally 20 come 50 microinches Ra.
On late-model engines through multi-layer steel (MLS) head gaskets, the OEM surface end up recommendations tend to be even smoother, to speak 20 come 30 microinches Ra or also 7 to 15 Ra. But the aftermarket likewise sells MLS gaskets v special coatings for plenty of of these exact same applications that deserve to handle surface finishes in the 50 come 60 microinch Ra range. So you need to know her gaskets and also the surface finish recommendations for them by the gasket manufacturer, or the OEM if you space using a factory-style instead of head gasket.

Don’t assume close enough is great enough. Eye-balling the surface complete will tell girlfriend if the surface is yes, really smooth (a mirror-like finish), really stormy (like sandpaper) or what in between, but it won’t tell friend if you are in the encourage range. Dragging her fingernail across the surface isn’t lot better, either, since a 30 Ra end up feels practically identical to a 50 Ra finish. And the smoother the end up gets, the more difficult it is to see or feel lot difference.
The only means to accurately determine if the surface complete is in ~ the correct selection is to inspect it through a profilometer. This is one expensive electronic instrument that drags a diamond-tipped stylus across the surface ar to calculate its file characteristics. The profilometer have the right to then display screen various values for the surface consisting of roughness median (Ra), average peak elevation (Rpk), typical valley depth (Rvk), and even waviness. These numbers might not be essential for an economic climate Chevy 350 rebuild, yet they deserve to be crucial when structure high power engines or trust engines. The mistake come avoid here is suspect the surface finish is correct as soon as you haven’t in reality measured it.
Wrong feed Rate/SpeedThe quality and smoothness of the surface finish requires making use of the correct feed rate and speed for the type of tool bit. This, in turn, will vary depending on the diameter that the cutter head.

To attain the best possible finish, you need to use a higher spindle speed and also lower table feed price with a really shallow cut on the final pass (less 보다 .001").

If you room using a carbide insert to refinish a cast iron head, the spindle rpm required will commonly be around 140 rpm because that an 11-inch cutter, 120 rpm because that a 13-inch cutter or 110 rpm because that a 14-inch cutter.
With CBN (cubic boron nitride) or PCD (polycrystaline diamond) inserts, the recommended spindle speed are much higher: 1040 rpm because that a 11-inch cutter, 880 rpm because that 13-inch cutter, or 720 rpm because that a 14-inch cutter. If the head or block being resurfaced is harder, high silicon contents alloy, the speeds should be slowed down a bit: 690 rpm for a 11-inch cutter, 580 rpm for a 13-inch cutter or 540 rpm for a 14-inch cutter.

With a single CBN or PCD insert cutter spinning at 1,000 come 1,500 rpm, the feed rate should probably be much less than 2 inches per minute on the final reduced to attain a surface complete in the low teens.
Removing Gaskets The wrong WayEngine disassembly is a dirty, greasy, time-consuming job, so any type of shortcut that makes the job-related go quicker is a an excellent idea, right? possibly not if the quick cut end up damaging parts or creating more work because that you in the lengthy run.

The practice we’re talking about here is making use of an abrasive pad in a drill to grind turn off gasket residue that might be stuck to the top or block. The abrasive will definitely whiz the gasket debris appropriate off, yet it can likewise whiz off steel leaving a shallow depression, a dig or a groove that may create a sealing difficulty when the engine is put earlier together.
Another factor not to use an abrasive disk to grind turn off or clean a surface is that it generates a many dust. Part gasket fibers might be hazardous to breathe. A dust mask can defend your lungs, yet the residue can finish up in other locations where that may reason problems later (like in the cylinders, intake ports, oil or coolant passages).

The best means to remove gaskets is v a sharp scraper and/or a have the right to of aerosol chemistry gasket remover. Spraying the gaskets through a chemistry remover eliminates hard scraping and the hazard of scratching or gouging the surface, especially on soft aluminum heads and blocks. The chemistry does many of the work-related by softening the gaskets. The residue can then be quickly scraped turn off the surface.
One mistake to avoid right here is utilizing the wrong device to scrape turn off the gaskets. An old screw driver is no a gasket remover. Nor is a putty knife. A gasket scraper is the best tool come use because it has a sharp, beveled edge the gets under and also lifts the old gasket native the surface. Just make certain the coffee is spicy (it have to be sharp enough to cut paper).

The trick to utilizing a gasket scraper effectively is to scrape at an angle the is almost parallel come the surface. By keeping the angle small, the guideline of the scraper will slip under the gasket and shear it away from the surface without digging in. If you shot to usage it like a chisel, you’ll probably finish up gouging the surface and damaging the surface. Also, organize the scraper so you push it forward (away native you) together you scrape. This way, if the tool slips the won’t gouge you.
Not checking FlatnessNever i think a head is flat. You can’t tell if a head or block is level or not unless you measure up it v a directly edge and also feeler gauge. You should constantly check for flatness, particularly in an important areas like those in between the cylinders.

Flatness specifications vary relying on the application, but on many pushrod engines with cast iron heads, as much as .003" (0.076 mm) out-of-flat lengthwise in V6 heads, .004" (0.102 mm) in four cylinder or V8 heads, and .006" (0.152 mm) in straight 6 cylinder heads is thought about acceptable. Aluminum heads, on the other hand, should have no more than .002" (.05 mm) out-of-flat in any direction. On a performance engine, the flatter the better.
If the confront of one aluminum head is warped, don’t i think the only means to straighten it is come grind steel off the face until it is level again. The totality head is warped. If the head has actually one or two overhead camshafts, the camer bores will likewise be misaligned in many cases. The ideal fix here is come straighten the head before it is resurfaced. This can substantially reduce or probably even remove the need to remove an ext than a couple thousandths the metal.

Aluminum heads have the right to be straightened by countershimming the head ~ above a hefty steel bowl (place shims under either finish of the head to counter the amount of distortion), clamping that down, then heating it in stove to around 425° F for numerous hours, then letting it slow-moving cool. The goal is to gain the camer bores straight. When they room in alignment, opportunities are the confront of the head will certainly be fairly flat, too, and require minimal machining to refinish the surface.
Another technique for straightening aluminum heads is to usage a torch come head the optimal of the head, beginning in the center and also working towards the ends. The trick below is to store the head temperature under 500° F to prevent softening the head as well much.

Taking Too lot MetalA head or block with a depression in the surface, or a surface that is out-of-flat can be made level again through simply raising the depth of cut when the component is resurfaced. The ascendancy here is to always remove the the very least amount of metal that’s vital to gain back flatness. Remove too much metal and you might end up through problems.

Excessive milling reduces the volume the the burning chambers and increases compression, possibly to the allude where detonation may become an concern even with greater octane fuel. On overhead electronic came engines, milling as well much steel off the face of the head alters the installed elevation of the head and retards cam timing. Top top a pushrod head, it will transform the valvetrain geometry and also may need corrections in the size of the pushrods. The only method to restore lost head height and combustion room volume is to usage a copper or stole head shim with the head gasket, or replace the head.
Don’t ‘Make Do’ with Outdated EquipmentExtremely smooth finishes call for high top quality resurfacing equipment (typically a milling machine) to attain really short Ra numbers. The doesn’t matter if you usage carbide, CBN or PCD tool bits to resurface a head as lengthy as you usage the correct feeding rate and also speed – and the devices is rigid enough to organize the cutter steady so the tool bit doesn’t lift or chatter once it renders in interrupted cut.

For example, a convert grinder may have the ability to mill heads and blocks. But the spindles and table drives in countless of this older makers cannot host close sufficient tolerances to attain a yes, really smooth, level finish. One equipment manufacturer said grinding and milling machines that are an ext than five years old are probably incapable of producing continual results and also should it is in replaced.
Most of the surfacing equipment that’s being offered to shops today has actually been redesigned because that high speed milling through CBN and also PCD. The machines have been beefed increase with more powerful motors, heavier castings, electrically-driven ball screw tables, and tighter assembly tolerances. Some deserve to hold machining tolerances come one tenth that a thousandth of an inch (.0001")!

Using The dorn ToolsThough the specialists recommend using PCD top top aluminum and CBN on cast iron, plenty of shops find CBN functions fine top top both types of metals and eliminates the require to readjust tooling when resurfacing different varieties of heads.
CBN may not it is in the best an option for milling aluminum since aluminum often tends to stick come CBN and leave a smeared finish. Also so, there is a means to avoid this indigenous happening: just spray a lubricant on the surface or the cutter. Follow to one source, the absolute finest lubricant to use for this purpose is olive oil. Just a little is needed, and it’s non-toxic, doesn’t stink and is reasonably inexpensive.

PCD works better on aluminum than CBN (and costs about the same), but PCD is no recommended because that resurfacing actors iron top or blocks because diamond it s okay too warm at high cutting speeds, reacts chemically through iron and breaks down. CBN can handle greater temperatures than PCD, and also dissipates heat around four times quicker than silicon carbide or aluminum oxide, making that a an excellent choice because that high rate resurfacing.
Something else that have to be thought about when making use of CBN come resurface heads and blocks is the depth that cut. CBN inserts frequently have a honed edge, therefore the minimum depth of reduced is usually minimal to around .004" or .005" on actors iron. If as well shallow a reduced is attempted, the result can it is in edge deterioration, poor tool life or chipping that the insert (CBN is sometimes coated v titanium to improve tool life).

Trying To acquire Too lot From A BitCBN and PCD last a lot much longer than carbide, but they don’t last forever. One typical mistake that’s do is make the efforts to reduced too many heads or blocks v the very same edge. If you are using a CBN button for resurfacing, you have to rotate the button about 5 degrees after 20 to 30 top to preserve an optimum cut surface.
Rotating the switch just a small bit when it beginning to obtain noisy will reveal a new edge and also reduce the risk of chipping the switch or put on it also far. Buttons with a beveled edge have the right to be relapped to gain back the sheet if they are not also badly worn. However if the switch has lost too lot of the edge, the only option is to change it with a brand-new one.

Resurfacing Diesel Heads with Precombustion chamber CupsHere’s a job that can ruin a tool insert in seconds. The worry here is no the difference in hardness between the cylinder head and the precombustion chamber cubs, yet the fact that plenty of of this cups are slightly loose. Staking the cups won’t lock castle in place since the very first pass v a resurfacer will certainly shave turn off the staking.
One systems is to eliminate the cups, resurface the head, then get the cup counterbore come the appropriate depth and also reinstall the cups. Another solution is to do the cup rigid by applying a penetrating locking compound roughly the cups prior to you resurface the head. This saves the time and labor of removing and reinstalling the cups.

Trying to Resurface Rusty HeadsIron oxide ~ above a cast iron head will certainly kill the life of a tool insert. The same goes for difficult calcium deposits in water jacket openings. The cutter tool little bit can additionally pick increase this debris and drag it throughout the surface, leaving a groove. The mistake come avoid below is trying come resurface a dirty head that has not been correctly cleaned. Remove every one of the rust and also calcium prior to the head is resurfaced. This can be done v chemical cleaners, a shooting blast cleaner or a tumbler.

Not attract Eye ProtectionHere’s one more common mistake some engine home builders wish they hadn’t made when resurfacing parts: not wearing eye protection. The cutter safety on a resurfacer will deflect most of the chips down, however a many debris still goes flying every which way while the maker is running. If friend lean down to take it a close look while the device is running, you may acquire hit in the confront with part microscopic steel shards. That’s why you desire eye protection,: one of two people a full challenge shield or safety and security glasses v side covers. You have two eyes so losing one might not leave you blind, but it will mess up your depth perception.

Lack the MaintenanceYou can’t mean to obtain high high quality surface finishes if you’ve neglected her equipment. Dry milling doesn’t require any kind of coolant for this reason there’s no coolant come maintain. Yet the resurfacer itself demands to be collection up correctly and checked periodically to make sure it is tho in ideal alignment.
Resurfacers need to be leveled with an accurate level. Place the level top top the means of the maker or top top the table mounting surface. Readjust the machine front to back as well together left to best until it is perfect level in every directions.

See more: How Old Was Michelle Duggar When She Had Her First Baby, Michelle Duggar

Next, examine the table to make sure it is running true. Connect a magnetic dial indicator in the cutter head and also traverse the left and also right to watch if the table is true come the wheel head. You must see no much more than .002" that variation throughout the entire traverse that the table. If the table is not running true, contact the tools supplier for the convey procedure.
Also check the parallels, making use of a dial indicator and also granite plate come make certain they are straight. If the parallels have runout, the resurfacer won’t reduced straight.

The cylinder head and block rollover clamps additionally need to be checked to do sure every little thing is straight.

If the cutter head has an ext than one device bit, all should be set to equal elevation (no more than .0005" variation) come get consistent results.