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IS "HESED" THE same AS "AGAPE"?GOD"S LOVE identified BY agreement IN THE OLD AND new TESTAMENTS

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Kindness andfaithful love (hesed) pursue me every day of mine life. Ns make my residence in thehouse of Yahweh for every time come come.Psalm 23:6

For this is howGod love the world: he offered his just Son, so that everyone who believes in himmay not perish however may have actually eternal life.John 3:16

God"s love for His covenant human being in the Old testimony isexpressed through the Hebrew indigenous hesed (checed), which English translationsusually render as "love," or "faithful love" (expressed in the Hebrew as hesedwe"emet for example in Gen 24:49; 32:11; 47:29; Ex 34:6; Jos 2:14; 2 Sam 2:6; 15:20).(1) However, hesed has actually a lot narrower definitionthan the English native "love" conveys. In the Hebrew Scriptures, hesedrefers come the kind of love the is both promised and also owed. That is an exchangeof affection and loyalty based on mutual obligations: love created in the bondsof a covenant. Contracts worry material possessions, however covenants concern intangibleslike honor and loyalty. When supplied for human relationships, this Hebrew native meansunion, fidelity, and also committment in the context of the marriage agreement (Gen 24:49), and also when used in between men or nations, that expresses the commitment bond offamily loyalty or a treaty obligation (Gen 21:27; 1 Sam 11:1).

When hesed defines God"s interaction with a human orpersons, the word expresses God"s faithfulness come His covenant and also the benevolentblessings and mercy He mirrors His obedient covenant people, as in Exodus 34:6-7.In that passage, God passed before Moses: then Yahweh passed prior to him andcalled out. "Yahweh, Yahweh, God the tenderness and also compassion, slow-moving to anger,rich in faithful love (hesed) and constancy, maintaining his faithful-love (hesed)to thousands, forgiving fault, crime and also sin, yet letting nothing walk unchecked,and punishing the parent"s fault in the children and also in the grandchildren tothe third and fourth generation!"(2)The native hesed also appears in this exact same context of covenant love inmany other passages in Old testament Scripture. For example, Psalm 136 repeatsthe word hesed twenty-six times, as soon as in every verse. Psalm 136 is theGreat Hallel ("praise-God") Psalm. In ~ the Passover meal, ~ above the an initial night ofthe Feast that Unleavened Bread, the faithful recited the "Great Hallel" afterthe "Lesser Hallel" (Ps 113-118) in ~ the end of the sacrificial meal, atradition Jesus and His disciples followed after the critical Supper (Mt 26:30; Mk 14:26).

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Another example is in Hosea 2:21/19 whereby Yahweh, addressing Israel as His covenant bride says: "I chandelier betroth you come myself forever,I chandelier betroth friend in uprightness and justice, and also faithful love (hesed) andtenderness." In the Hosea passage, Yahweh provides the indigenous hesed inthe context of marital love to demonstrate His faithfulness to His covenantwith Israel, the kindness the bestows ~ above His world (cf., Ps 136; Jer 31:3; etc.),and the services He extends to them as the expression that His tender commitment love(Ex 20:6; Dt 5:10; 2 Sam 22:51; Ps 18:50; Jer 32:18). However, Yahweh"s divinehesed/covenant love calls for the exact same kind the commitment indigenous the humanbeings that have gotten in into a agreement relationship with Him. A commitment withYahweh forms a mutual bond of commitment based on self-giving, piety, trust,loyalty, deep affection, and also joyful submission to the regulation of the agreement as anexpression of love. The prophet Hosea writes: I prayer your surname for yourfaithful love and also your constancy; your assures surpass even your fame... Though ns live surrounded by trouble, you offer me life, to my enemies"fury! girlfriend stretch the end your appropriate hand and also save me; Yahweh will do all thingsfor me. Yahweh, your faithful love endures forever, perform not abandonwhat you have actually made (Ps 138:2b, 7-8). Hesed love is no a staticlove yet a love that need to be returned: faithful love is what pleases me, notsacrifice; expertise of God, not burned offerings (Hos 6:6).

The expression of Yahweh"s faithful commitment love is notlimited to a single generation. As soon as a repentant Israel returns to her Lord,Yahweh promises blessings which involved Israel from her obedience to her DivineSpouse, to express in His everlasting hesed/love which will extendthrough the generations of commitment children:

Yahweh likewise promised His faithful love/hesed toIsrael"s Davidic monarchs who offer Him as faithful sons to a loving dad (2 Sam 7:12-14). Because that this covenant promise, King David praised God"s faithful covenantlove in 2 Samuel 22:50-51: because that this I will praise you, Yahweh, among thenations, and also sing praise to your name. He saves his king, time ~ time,displays faithful love because that his anointed, because that David and also his heirs forever.

In the prophet Jeremiah"s positive passages that covenantrenewal in Jeremiah chapter 31, Yahweh speak His prophet His plans for Israel, Hiswayward Bride, if she will go back to Him in faithfulness: as soon as that timecomes, Yahweh declares, i shall it is in the God of every the households of Israel,and they will certainly be my people. Yahweh states this: lock have uncovered pardon in thedesert, those who have survived the sword. Israel is marching come his rest.Yahweh has appeared to me from afar; I have actually loved you with an everlasting love,and so ns still maintain my faithful love for you (Jer 31:1-3).

However, just as Yahweh"s hesed covenant love willextend to the descendants of the faithful, His punishment for Israel"s absence of love and loyalty will additionally reach down v generations together the prophetJeremiah warned: You show faithful love come thousands however repay the fathers"guilt in full to their youngsters after them. An excellent and mighty God, whose surname isYahweh Sabaoth, an excellent in purpose, mighty in deed, whose eyes are open up on allhuman ways, profitable every individual as that person"s ways and also actionsdeserve! (Jer 32:18-19).

One cannot separate true understanding of God from love because that God:Yahweh states this, "Let the sage no boast of wisdom, no one the valiant the valor,nor the rich of riches! but let anyone who wants to boast, boast of this:of understanding and also knowing me. For ns am Yahweh, that acts v faithful love(hesed), justice, and also uprightness ~ above earth; yes, these room what please me,"Yahweh declares (Jer 9:22-23). Understanding of God is not just anintellectual assent the God exists. Come "know" in the language of the Bibleindicates an intimate knowledge of the human either in a sexual feeling or in acovenantal sense. Biblical covenants form families, in marriages and also the senseof prolonged families. Once David forms a agreement bond with King Saul"s sonJonathan (1 Sam 20:14-17), Jonathan becomes David"s "brother," and it is together abrother that David laments Jonathan"s fatality in 2 Samuel 1:26, crying out: Jonathan,by her dying I as well am stricken, ns am desolate for you, Jonathan mine brother.

When Yahweh develops a commitment with an individual or v apeople, the unites himself to them, not just as Bridegroom to Bride together in thesense of the corporate commitment with Israel at Mt. Sinai, but in the case ofthe Davidic covenant. God became David"s and also Solomon"s father, and David andSolomon came to be God"s young (2 Sam 7:14; 1 Chr 17:11-14). God shows His hesedfor his covenant children by the blessing he confers upon them and, similarly,God"s covenant youngsters "know God" when they observe the agreement obligationsand show their gratitude for God"s blessing by return His love:

The shortcut of covenant love between Yahweh and also His children,like marital love, is no optional nor unconditional; it is obligatory, andits intimacy is minimal to the beloved. The is not to say hesed as covenantlove is required or compelled. The commitment partner enters openly into the bondof love. Simply as in marriage, one cannot force love, but it is supposed infulfillment the the union. Agreement love should be freely and graciously given,but indigenous the Biblical perspective, over there is no such thing as "free love." Inthis way, the commitment love expressed as hesed is no so lot a feelingas a decision of complimentary will. In the Bible, once God called His human being to "love"in the context of the covenant, he is questioning them come respond lovingly to thelove the God whether they feel prefer it or not. Take into consideration Jesus" command come Hisdisciples when He speak them come love your enemies (Mt 5:44) or loveone an additional as I have loved girlfriend (Jn 15:12). In these new Testamentpassages, Jesus provides the Greek native agape; the is the very same wordused because that hesed in the Greek translation of the Old Testament.

In the Greek language, as in Hebrew, over there are several termsto express the feeling of "love." Eros is passionate or physical love; phileois the love of household or humanity in general, and agape is the Greekword because that spiritual or magnificent love. In the brand-new Testament, agape canexpress the love that God has for humankind in basic as in man 3:16: ForGod so love the world... In this verse, agape differs from hesedin that it does not describe a love currently promised come a certain group ofpeople.

The second use that agape is not only for God"s lovefor us but likewise for the human an answer to God"s love as well as for love sharedand expressed in between covenant loyalty who space brothers and sisters in thecovenant family. For example, in john 21:15, Jesus asks Peter: "do friend love(agapas) me much more than these?" In Matthew 5:43 agape refers to the loveof one"s neighbor and also seems interchangeable with philos, brotherly love.Jesus says, "You have actually heard exactly how it to be said, You will love your neighborand dislike your enemy." however I to speak this to you, love her enemies and also pray forthose that persecute you..." In this case, Jesus offers agape once referringto loving an enemy. Therefore, agape is not just a agreement love owedin commitment to a specific person or group with whom one is in a cursed relationshipwhether the is God or one more person in the human family. Agape love refersto a distinctive love characterized by Jesus as an unconditional, self-sacrificing lovewhich does not intend a reward.

In 1 Corinthians thing 13, St. Paul provides instructions toall believer on how they should use your spiritual gifts. He starts histreatise with the words: Though i command languages both person andangelic "if ns speak without love (agape), ns am no an ext than a gong booming or a cymbalclashing (1 Cor 13:1). Paul provides the word agape together the expressionof love all Christians have to exhibit utilizing the spiritual gifts God has giventhem. Therefore, agape love, whether magnificent or human, is a self-sacrificiallove i m sorry the Gospel the John says characterizes God, and also which should describeall of us in our an answer to God and each other. The Gospel of man tells us: Forthis is just how God loved the world: he offered his only Son, so the everyone whobelieves in him may not perish yet may have actually eternal life (John 3:16).

For the Christian, agape love is defined as anexpression of divine grace which method it is undeserved and unmerited. In itsunique, redefined Christian definition, agape is a love person beingscannot provide themselves except God because agape, expressed together self-sacrificiallove, is the instance Jesus collection for us on the altar the the cross. The trueexpression of agape love operation from Christ in abundance to us and fromus come the world, simply as the blood and water flowed indigenous His side on the altarof the Cross. Because that the Christian then, agape love is a greater order lovethan hesed due to the fact that Christ himself divinely inspired it. Hesed isbased ~ above obedience, yet agape is founded in unmerited grace. Agapelove, unconditional, self-sacrificial love, is the traditional of love Jesuscommanded us to refer in the human household when he said: This is mycommandment: love one one more as I have loved you.

Endnotes: 1. Various other Hebrew words that are translated as "love" in our OldTestament English translations in enhancement to hesed are ahab inthe masculine and also ahabah in the feminine; chashaq; dod; racham (compassionatelove); ra"yah (fem., sisterly love); reya (masc., brotherlylove); chashaq (in love).

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2. All Biblical passages quoted in this record are fromthe new Jerusalem bible translation. The divine Name in the Hebrew text, YHWH/Yahweh,is rendered together LORD or GOD in various other translations.