To assist students understand expository message structures, teachers have the right to acquaint them through the signal or cue words authors use in creating each that the structures and use the graphics organizers offered in this article

Introduction

Expository message differs considerably from narrative text in tone, style, structure, and features.First, expository messages purvey a ton of authority, due to the fact that the writer possess authentic and accurate info on the topics they write around (Fisher &Frey, 2008). Second, these texts follow a layout that is distinctly different from the of narrative text. Expository text uses clear, focused language and also moves fromfacts that are general to details and abstract to concrete.

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Another aspect of expository messages is the they utilize particular structures come present and explain information (Burke, 2000). And, it has long been recognized that the capacity to recognize text structure enhances the student"s ability to comprehend and recall the details read (Armbruster, Anderson, & Ostertag,1989).The 5 most common structures made use of in informational text room cause-effect, comparison-contrast, definition-example, problem-solution, and also proposition supportor sequential listing. To aid students recognize and identify these structures, teachers have the right to acquaint them through the signal or cue native authors utilize in composing each of the structures (See below). In addition, DougBuehl (2001) has produced a series of questions to help guide student in identifying each certain structure. Finally, check out the reproducible masters below for a set of graphics organizers the students and teachers may use to facilitate framework identification.

Text structure Signal WordsCause-EffectComparison-ContrastDefinition-ExampleProblem-SolutionProposition-Support
becauseconsequentlyIf so, thensincethereforeso thatthusas a resultnot only, buthoweverbuton the various other hand instead ofas fine as comparable to different fromcompared tofor examplefor instancespecificallyin additiondescribed asto illustrateanotherfirst, second, thirdbecausesinceconsequentlyso thatneverthelessa solutionhoweverthereforein additionas resultfor examplethereforefirst, second, thirdbeforeafterthenfinallyin conclusion

A final element of informational text is its functions or those items the an writer uses come organize the text. Usual text features encompass the following:(1) a table that contents, (2) a preface, (3) thing introductions, (4) chapterheadings and subheadings, (5) marginal note or gloss, (6) chapter summaries, (7) maps, charts, graphs, and also illustrations, (8) one index, and (9) a glossary. As detailed above, content analysis instruction is most reliable when teacher scaffold their students" learning (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004). When presenting a structural outline as a scaffolding strategy is a great place come begin, Garber-Miller (2007) advises, "It is also beneficial to provide students a content synopsis so they can ponder the countless concepts and also questions they will certainly encounter throughout the year. Teacher must help them understand just how the ideas in the textbook are interrelated" (p. 285). She argues that teacher utilize text previews in stimulate to accomplish this.


Scaffolding tactics for expository text

Readence, Bean, and also Baldwin (2004) imply a basic procedure to help students recognize, identify, and also utilize text structure as a way to far better comprehend and also recall reading from expository text:

Steps to identify Expository message Structure

1. First, version this strategy for students by working with an assigned text analysis that illustrates a specific text structure and explaining why it is a certain type and exactly how that type is organized. Exploit the text framework signal words noted above and also use a graphics organizer from among those listed below that is illustrative that the kind of message being explained.

2. Next, administer students v a exercise session therefore they deserve to utilize the signal words and also graphic organizers because that each text framework pattern. This secondstep enables you come gradually change the obligation of learning around text structures from yourself to the students.

3. Finally, when students have end up being proficient in ~ identifying details text structure patterns, castle should produce examples of the various structures on your own.

In order to more reinforce students" understanding of message structure, you have the right to utilize the Structured Notetaking procedure (Smith & Tompkins, 1988) to build study guides based upon the text structure of assigned readings.

Steps for Structured Notetaking

1. Pick a section of text and determine the organizational pattern provided to convey info in the text. Common organizational patterns are disputed above.

2. Next, produce a graphic organizer that adheres to this pattern, finish withfocusing questions, and distribute it as a study guide. (Graphic organizer templates are offered below.)

3. Instruct student to review the chapter and also take notes by record the suitable information in the graphic organizer sections.


Downloadable graphic organizers

Problem-Solution
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pdf | doc
Definition-Example
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pdf | doc
Comparison-Contrast
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pdf | doc
Cause-Effect
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pdf | doc
Proposition-Support/Listing
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pdf | doc

References

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Armbruster, B., Anderson, T.H., & Ostertag, J. (1989). Teaching text structure to enhance reading and writing. The analysis Teacher, 43(2), 130-137.Biancarosa, G. & Snow, C. (2004). Reading next — A vision for action and research study in center school and also high institution literacy. Washington, DC: Alliance for great Education.Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interaction learning. Newark, DE: worldwide Reading Association.Burke, J. (2000). Reading reminders: Tools, tips and also techniques. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook. Fisher, D. & Frey, D. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: content area methods at work.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Garber-Miller, K. (2007). Playful textbook previews: Letting walk of familiar mustache monologues. newspaper of Adolescent and also Adult proficiency 50(4), 284-288.Readance, J.E., Bean, T.W. & Baldwin, R.S. (2004).Content area literacy: An incorporated approach. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Smith, P. & Tompkins, G. (1998). Structured notetaking: A new strategy for contents areas. journal of reading 32(1), 46-53.

References

Armbruster, B., Anderson, T.H., & Ostertag, J. (1989). To teach text framework to improve reading and writing. The reading Teacher, 43(2), 130-137.Biancarosa, G. & Snow, C. (2004). Reading next — A vision for activity and research in middle school and also high school literacy.

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Washington, DC: Alliance for wonderful Education.Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom strategies for interactive learning. Newark, DE: worldwide Reading Association.Burke, J. (2000). Reading reminders: Tools, tips and techniques. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook. Fisher, D. & Frey, D. (2008). Improving adolescent literacy: content area tactics at work.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Garber-Miller, K. (2007). Happy textbook previews: Letting walk of familiar mustache monologues. newspaper of Adolescent and also Adult literacy 50(4), 284-288.Readance, J.E., Bean, T.W. & Baldwin, R.S. (2004).Content area literacy: An integrated approach. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Smith, P. & Tompkins, G. (1998). Structured notetaking: A new strategy for content areas. journal of analysis 32(1), 46-53.