By:Ingrid Lobo, Ph.D.(Write scientific research Right)&Kenna Shaw, Ph.D.(Executive Editor, Education)© Education
Citation:Lobo,I.&Shaw,K.(2008)Thomas hunt Morgan, genetic recombination, and gene Education1(1):205





How would you feeling if you had actually to it is in the one to an obstacle Gregor Mendel"s paradigm-shifting regulations of inheritance? Yet thomas Hunt Morgan did precisely this and in the process made gene mapping possible.

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In 1911, while examining the chromosome theory of heredity, biologist thomas Hunt Morgan had a major breakthrough. Morgan occasionally noticed the "linked" traits would certainly separate. Meanwhile, other traits top top the very same chromosome showed little detectable linkage. Morgan considered the evidence and proposed the a procedure of cross over, or recombination, can explain his results. Specifically, the proposed that the two paired chromosomes could "cross over" come exchange information. Today, we understand that recombination does certainly occur during prophase of meiosis (Figure 1), and also it creates different combinations of alleles in the gametes that an outcome (i.e., the F1 generation; figure 2).
Figure 1:Recombination and also gamete production.
A to compare of nonrecombination (left) with recombination (right), shows how recombination influence the method chromosomes space passed into gametes in Meiosis II. On the right, a solitary crossover occasion produces fifty percent nonrecombinant gametes and fifty percent recombinant gametes.
© 2014 Education adjusted from Pierce, Benjamin. Genetics: A conceptual Approach, second ed. All rights reserved.
Figure detail

When proposing the idea of crossing over, Morgan likewise hypothesized the the frequency of recombination was regarded the distance between the gene on a chromosome, and that the interchange of genetic information broke the linkage between genes. Morgan imagined that genes on chromosomes were similar to pearl on a string (Weiner, 1999); in various other words, they were physical objects. The closer two genes were to one one more on a chromosome, the higher their chance of being inherited together. In contrast, genes situated farther away from one an additional on the exact same chromosome were an ext likely to be separated during recombination. Therefore, Morgan appropriately proposed that the strength of linkage in between two genes counts upon the distance in between the gene on the chromosome. This proposition ended up being the communication for construction of the more quickly maps the the human genome.
Figure 2:Allele recombination.
Recombination is the sorting that alleles into new combinations. Following the formation of gametes over 2 generations shows just how recombination deserve to produce new allelic combine (lower right) or stay the very same (lower left).
© 2014 Education adapted from Pierce, Benjamin. Genetics: A conceptual Approach, second ed. All legal rights reserved.
Figure detail

Sturtevant provides Crossing-Over Data to build the very first Genetic Map

Soon ~ Morgan gift his hypothesis, Alfred Henry Sturtevant, a 19-year-old Columbia university undergraduate who was working v Morgan, realized the if the frequency the crossing over was regarded distance, one could use this information to sketch the gene on a chromosome. After ~ all, the furthermore apart 2 genes were on a chromosome, the much more likely it was the these genes would separate during recombination. Therefore, as Sturtevant explained it, the "proportion the crossovers can be used as an table of contents of the street between any type of two factors" (Sturtevant, 1913). Collecting a ridge of activities data, Sturtevant walk home and spent most of the night drawing the an initial chromosomal linkage map because that the genes located on the X chromosome the fruit flies (Weiner, 1999).

Figure 3:Sturtevant"s Drosophila gene map.
In Sturtevant"s gene map, 6 traits room arranged along a straight chromosome according to the loved one distance of every from properties B. Traits incorporate yellow body (B), white eyes (C, O), Vermillion eye (P), miniature wings (R), and also rudimentary wing (M).
© 2013 Education adapted from Pierce, Benjamin. Genetics: A theoretical Approach, 2nd ed. All legal rights reserved.

When developing his map, Sturtevant began by placing 6 X-linked gene in order. B was a gene for black body color. C was a gene that enabled color to show up in the eyes. Flies with the p gene had actually vermilion eyes instead of the plain red, and also flies through two duplicates of the recessive O gene had actually eyes that showed up a shade known as eosin. The R and M components both affected the wings. Sturtevant placed C and O at the same suggest because lock were totally linked and were constantly inherited with each other — in various other words, he never saw any evidence for recombination in between C and also O. Sturtevant then inserted the remainder the the genes in the order shown in number 3 (Sturtevant, 1913). Crossover occasions were tracked by assessing the F2 progeny in crosses for "new" phenotypes.

Figure 4:Phenotypes provided in Sturtevant"s cross.
Sturtevant crossed flies with lengthy wings (M) and also vermillion eye (p) through flies through rudimentary wing (m) and also red eyes (P). This traits room X-linked.

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For example, to discover the distance between P (vermilion eyes) and also M (long wings), Sturtevant carry out crosses in between flies that had long wings and also vermilion eyes and flies the had little wings and also red eyes. These crosses caused F1 paris that either had actually long wings and also red eye or long wings and vermilion eyes. Sturtevant climate crossed this two types of F1 flies and analyzed the offspring for evidence of recombination. Unforeseen phenotypes observed in the male F2 progeny indigenous this overcome were climate examined. (Because very small recombination wake up in the male germ heat of Drosophila, only the female F1 chromosomes are taken into consideration for predicting phenotypes

.) Sturtevant listed four class of male flies in this F2 generation, as presented in Table 1.

The two extr classes of flies that showed up in this generation (long wings with red eyes and also rudimentary wings through vermilion eyes) might only be defined by recombination developing in the female germ line.

PhenotypeNumber the of connected Gametes long wings, red eye 105 Recombinant Rudimentary wings, red eyes 33 Nonrecombinant long wings, vermilion eyes 316 Nonrecombinant Rudimentary wings, vermilion eyes 4 RecombinantTable 1: course of male records in the F2 generation

Sturtevant then worked out the order and the straight distances in between these connected genes, thus creating a linkage map. In doing so, he computed the distance in an arbitrarily unit he called the "map unit," which represented a recombination frequency of 0.01, or 1%. Later, the map unit to be renamed the centimorgan (cM), in honor of thomas Hunt Morgan, and also it is still offered today together the unit of measure of distances along chromosomes.

In addition to explicate the bespeak of the genes on the X chromosome that fruit flies, Sturtevant"s 1913 file elucidated a variety of other exciting points, consisting of the following:

The relationship between crossing over and also genetic map street The results of multiple crossover occasions The truth that a first crossover deserve to inhibit a second crossover (a phenomenon referred to as interference, i m sorry is described later in this article)

To better understand how Sturtevant arrived together his results, let"s take a closer look in ~ the procedure he followed. In number 5, the gray-eosin and yellow-red flies space the parental lines, and all the alleles for these traits are connected on the X chromosome. Therefore, any kind of gray-red or yellow-eosin masculine offspring space recombinants. Together you can see, two recombinants result from the cross. Us count only the masculine progeny since the males have actually one X chromosome and also dominance will not obscure any phenotypes (Robbins, 2000). That course, crossing over can take place only in the mrs fruit flies, which have two X chromosomes. Thus, in this cross, the mrs F1 gametes provide the parental and also recombinant gametes that us observe in the F2 progeny.