Local jails, state prisons and private phone providers

byPeter Wagner andAlexi JonesTweet thisFebruary 2019Press relax

At a time when the expense of a common phone call is draw close zero, human being behind bars in the U.S. Are often required to pay astronomical rates to contact their loved ones or lawyers. Why? since phone carriers bait prisons and jails into charging high phone prices in exchange because that a re-superstructure of the revenue.The good news is that, in the critical decade, we’ve do this industry significantly fairer:

The Federal interactions Commission (FCC) capped the price of out-of-state call calls indigenous both prisons and also jails at around 21 cents a minute;The FCC capped plenty of of the abusive fees that providers supplied to extract extra earnings from consumers; and

However, the vast bulk of our progress has remained in state-run prisons. In county- and city-run jails — wherein predatory contract get small attention — instate phone calls can still price $1 every minute, or more. Moreover, phone providers continue to extract added profits by charging consumers surprise fees2 and are acquisition aggressive measures to border competition in the industry.

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These high rates and also fees have the right to be damaging for world incarcerated in regional jails. Regional jails are very different from state prisons: top top a provided day, 3 out of 4 world held in jails under regional authority have not even been convicted, much much less sentenced. The vast majority are being held pretrial, and also many will remain behind bars uneven they can make bail. Charging pretrial defendants high prices because that phone calls punishes people who room legally innocent, drives up expenses for their appointed counsel, and makes the harder because that them to call family members and also others who might aid them post bail or build their defense. It additionally puts them at threat of shedding their jobs, housing, and also custody that their kids while they space in jail awaiting trial.

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The expense of calls residence from state prisons has declined as a result of the FCC’s caps and also political push from the families, however jails still lag much behind. In fact, we calculation that approximately half of the small rate drop displayed for jails is early out to alters in data and also methodology in between the 2016 and also 2018 surveys and may no reflect an actual fall in prices. (Shown are 6 national surveys the out-of-state calls native state prisons, 7 surveys the in-state calls from state prisons, and also 2 surveys that in-state calls from jails. For much more information around these surveys, watch methodology). To view the claims with the most significant rate drops, view Appendix Table 1.

It is well within the power of both prisons and also jails to negotiate for short phone rates for incarcerated people, by refusing to accept kickbacks (i.e. commissions) native the provider’s revenue and by striking more tough bargains through the providers. And many state prisons have actually done so: Illinois prisons, notably, negotiated for phone call costing much less than a penny a minute.

But in Illinois jails — which room run not by the state yet by individual cities and counties — phone calls price 52 time more, through a usual 15-minute call home from a jail in Illinois costing $7. In various other states, the family members of world in jail have to pay even more: A speak to from a Michigan prison costs around $12 ~ above average, and also can go as high together $22 because that 15 minutes (compared to $2.40 indigenous the state’s jail system).


On average, call calls native jail price over 3 times much more than phone calls indigenous state prisons. Nationally, the average cost of a 15-minute call from jail is $5.74. This table and also the map listed below show just exactly how much an ext local jails space charging in every state than state prisons because that the same 15 minute in-state call call:

State Highest expense of a 15 minute in-state contact from a prison (2018) Average cost of a 15 minute in-state contact from a jail (2018) expense of a 15 minute in-state speak to from a state jail (2018) How many times greater the mean jail rate is compared to the state prison"s rate
Alabama $4.20 $3.55 $3.34 1.1
Arizona $9.75 $4.33 $3.34 1.3
Arkansas $24.82 $14.49 $4.80 3.0
California $17.80 $5.70 $2.03 2.8
Colorado $14.85 $6.50 $1.80 3.6
Florida $8.45 $4.19 $2.10 2.0
Georgia $4.50 $2.59 $2.40 1.1
Idaho $17.25 $5.19 $1.65 3.1
Illinois $15.52 $7.11 $0.14 52.7
Indiana $15.15 $6.31 $3.60 1.8
Iowa $14.10 $7.03 $1.65 4.3
Kansas $18.62 $8.49 $2.70 3.1
Kentucky $11.30 $5.81 $3.15 1.8
Louisiana $3.75 $3.53 $3.15 1.1
Maine $6.23 $4.26 $1.35 3.2
Maryland $6.00 $3.03 $0.52 5.8
Massachusetts $6.15 $4.22 $1.50 2.8
Michigan $22.56 $12.03 $2.40 5.0
Minnesota $12.02 $7.19 $0.75 9.6
Mississippi $7.84 $5.64 $0.59 9.6
Missouri $20.12 $6.90 $0.75 9.2
Montana $14.68 $9.24 $2.15 4.3
Nebraska $15.80 $8.02 $0.94 8.5
Nevada $14.25 $5.43 $1.65 3.3
New Hampshire $8.27 $4.63 $0.20 23.2
New Jersey $6.65 $1.26 $0.66 1.9
New Mexico $2.25 $2.04 $1.20 1.7
New York $9.95 $7.79 $0.65 12.0
North Carolina $12.00 $4.82 $1.50 3.2
North Dakota $12.00 $7.62 $1.19 6.4
Ohio $5.40 $3.18 $0.75 4.2
Oklahoma $18.87 $6.34 $3.00 2.1
Oregon $15.75 $4.42 $2.40 1.8
Pennsylvania $12.20 $3.95 $0.89 4.4
South Carolina $8.25 $5.72 $0.83 6.9
South Dakota $10.19 $7.11 $1.20 5.9
Tennessee $14.29 $4.72 $2.40 2.0
Texas $17.25 $6.53 $0.90 7.3
Utah $15.06 $5.64 $2.85 2.0
Virginia $14.65 $4.51 $0.61 7.4
Washington $17.35 $5.93 $1.65 3.6
West Virginia $1.80 $1.56 $0.48 3.3
Wisconsin $21.97 $7.99 $1.80 4.4
Wyoming $14.22 $7.77 $1.65 4.7

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greatest costs
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Average jail contact costs
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Prison/jail comparisons
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As that November 2018, in more than fifty percent of states, the highest possible in-state 15 minute contact costs more than $10, and also in 15 states it prices over $15. (Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont carry out not have actually jails and are because of this not displayed). (For the surname of the facilities that fee the many in each state, check out Appendix Table 3.


The evidence suggests that that is, at most, only slightly an ext expensive for the carriers to offer jails 보다 prisons, and certainly no 3 or 5 or more times much more expensive. The difference in pricing is defined by three factors, noted below from the very least to most important:

The tiny differences in the way that phones occupational in jails as contrasted to prisons;The profit-seeking methods of separation, personal, instance facilities; andThe profit-seeking techniques of separation, personal, instance phone providers.

We’ll testimonial these worries in order.

When the Federal communications Commission the review confidential cost data native phone providers, it uncovered that since jails space usually smaller than prisons and have higher turnover 보다 prisons, service providers pay an ext for particular overhead prices (such as the expense of opening brand-new accounts), making each minute of usage slightly an ext expensive.

But the difference was clearly small: once the FCC proposed best phone prices for prisons and also jails, its suggest price caps because that jails — also the smallest jails — were just moderately higher than the price caps because that prisons. (The FCC’s will was to propose reasonable phone rates for prisons and jails that would certainly still be financially rewarding for the providers. To it is in clear, these price caps never got in effect.3):

The FCC suggest 2015 price caps, displayed here through our contextual annotations.4Facility type Proposed caps Notes
State prisons 11¢/minute
Local jails with a populace over 1,000 14¢/minute About 31% of civilization in jails are in facilities of this size, and this price is 27% higher than in state prisons.
Local jails v a populace of 350 come 999 16¢/minute About 32% of civilization in jails space in framework of this size, and this price is 45% higher than in state prisons.
Local jails v a populace under 350 22¢/minute About 37% of people in jails space in infrastructure of this size, and this price is double that in state prisons.

More data clearly demonstrate that little facilities execute not need to charge such high rates. An analysis of Michigan rates shows the facility size does no actually correlate to rates. Many of the smallest framework were may be to set their rates at levels comparable to those of the largest facilities:


It is plainly possible to have low rates in facilities of all sizes, as the vertical cluster of dots ~ above the left that the graph illustrates.

So if phone rates are not correlated with facility size, who is responsible because that sky-high phone rates in jails: jail administrators or phone call providers?Let’s begin with prison administrators and their demand for kickbacks. together the FCC’s investigation found, facilities’ demand for commissions cd driver up prices. In bespeak to success contracts, the service providers are ready to charge any type of rate essential in order to provide the preferred income. So a provider could offer to fee consumers $1/minute and pay the basic a 90% commission, or $0.50/minute through an 80% commission, or $0.10/minute with no commission in ~ all. These combinations all deliver the same income to the provider ($0.10 every minute), however the end price to the consumer ultimately relies on how large of a the supervisory board the basic demands.

But while facilities play a function in driving increase the expense of call calls, it’s clear that the profit-seeking actions of individual providers have actually a much greater impact. Providers, it should be noted, execute not have to charge exorbitant rates to deliver substantial revenue come facilities. Some providers offer a combination of high commission income and low prices per minute. However other providers, favor Securus, continue to conquer the market regardless of offering facilities a worse deal: short commissions and also high rates, as displayed in this evaluation of Michigan the supervisory board revenue and also in-state phone call rates.


This analysis of yearly revenue per incarcerated person5 mirrors that the most profitable contracts are, indigenous the view of the facilities, ICSolutions contracts that sell a reduced rate. The facilities that contract v Securus and also GTL often have both greater rates and also a reduced income.

These last providers space uniquely skilled at convincing jails to authorize contracts the are much less profitable than the infrastructure assume. What the cluster of high-commission, low-rate contracts in the graph above method is the it is feasible for both jails and providers to do a comprehensive profit on $3.15 call calls.6 on the other finish of the graph, Securus’s swarm of high-rate low-commission-payment contracts way that the company is keeping the substantial income for itself and also sharing very little with the facilities.7

Methodology: This analysis is based on an mean of available commission payment made between 2014 and 2017 (link to appendix), and also designed together a an ext realistic view of how commissions actually work in practice. The board of directors percentages in the contract space misleading since the providers make profits on fees i beg your pardon are outside of the board of directors system, and also the providers have been known to steer speak to volume to lower-commission call types in order to suppress board of directors payments. (As we’ve documented in Genesee County, Michigan, this deserve to make rose 8 times smaller sized than counties expect.) for the data, watch the complete report methodology.


State prisons have, compared to jails, several advantages:

State prisons, i beg your pardon are bigger than jails, have the means to analyze the costs and also benefits that proposed contracts (and frequently write their own contracts). Their analyses deserve to reveal covert fiscal and also policy prices underlying too-good-to-be-true merchant proposals. State prisons tend to be operation by appointees the the Governor, so they are frequently insulated from temporary financial and also political pressures, and are regularly supported by career staff who have actually years of experience negotiating through billion-dollar communications companies.

Jails, meanwhile, are delicate to signing bad contracts because:

Local governments (which run jails) tend to have actually smaller or much less flexible budgets and also are much less eager come think long-term than state governments (which operation prisons). And in particular, when jails room run by elected officials, they might not it is in looking past the next election.The usual person booked right into a prison is released in hrs or days and may make just a couple of calls, so the is challenging for their families to put sustained political press on prison administrators to negotiate far better contracts. Plenty of state legislatures — and also by extension the Public utility Commissions and also other regulatory and also civil society organizations — salary very small attention to separation, personal, instance jails or the state’s aggregated prison policy.

So to recap, the providers are savvy and really effective at cut self-serving contracts through the jails. But in enhancement to their high prices in jails, companies also slip in surprise fees that manipulate families and, as we will see, shortchange facilities.

How charging families hidden fees shortchanges both families and also facilities

Phone suppliers are counting on facilities, regulators, legislators, journalists and also the reader of this report to focus only ~ above per-minute phone call rates, ignoring your other significant source that revenue: fees.

Because the common reader unfamiliar through telecommunications regulations would certainly assume that rates and also fees space the exact same thing, it is helpful to step ago and clarify ours definitions:

Rates:This is what girlfriend pay every minute, consisting of any higher charge for the first minute the the call.Fees:This is every little thing else you can pay because that “services” related to the call, such as fees to open up an account, have an account, money an account, nearby an account, acquire a refund, receive a paper bill, etc.

Charging high consumer fees permits phone service providers to technically abide by price caps while generating a new source the revenue — one on which, as a bonus, they do not need to pay rose to facilities. As long as this fees room ignored or dismissed together an “ancillary” issue, service providers will continue to use them as — in the FCC’s indigenous — “the chief source of customer abuse.” Historically, this fees space not trivial, however “can increase the cost of family members staying in touch … by as much as 40%.”

To that is credit, the FCC make tremendous progression on this worry in 2015, capping part fees and also eliminating others.12 simply one that the revolutionary — capping the fee charged because that a credit card acquisition (to a still significant $3.00)13 — has actually saved consumer $48 million each year since.14

Sadly, the many unscrupulous providers have uncovered ways come evade these brand-new regulations, and continue to fee unconscionable fees.

For example, many world living in poor (who are amongst the most likely to be incarcerated or have actually incarcerated love ones) execute not have bank accounts and often pay their bills through money transfer via WesternUnion or Moneygram.15 WesternUnion and also MoneyGram fee a conventional price of around $6.0016 come send a payment to many companies, including GTL,17 NCIC, Telmate, Paytel, or ICSolutions. (See table.)

The fee charged by WesternUnion and also MoneyGram come send $25 payments to every of the providers over from in-person agents in Massachusetts in December 2018 and also January 2019.Provider Moneygram dues WesternUnion Fee
Amtel N/A $9.99
GTL N/A $6.95
Infinity $6.95 N/A
Lattice Inc N/A $9.95
NCIC $4.99 $6.50
Paytel $6.49 $5.00
Securus $11.99 $11.95
Telmate $6.99 N/A
ICSolutions N/A $5.00

However, various other companies have actually arranged18 concealed profits in these 3rd party payment systems. For the very same $25 payment come Amtel, Lattice or Securus, western Union and MoneyGram fee a shocking $10-12. The explanation is the Western Union and MoneyGram space collecting a section of this dues on behalf of the call providers, something that the FCC intended to prohibit. Amtel has also admitted come the FCC the it receive a portion of west Union’s fees. Western Union calls this payments a “revenue share” in that is correspondence and a “referral fee” in the contracts. Families and also facilities would be best to contact this hidden fee a kind of exploitation.

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The providers also invent brand-new services i beg your pardon they speak to “advanced,” “premium” or “convenience,” however which often tend to it is in simply more expensive methods to make families pay because that the very same product.

For example, Securus goes the end of its method to do it difficult for family members come create and fund account in an reliable manner. Rather than encourage families to develop pre-paid accounts — or to include funds to a depleted account — Securus instead steers people to pay because that each contact individually. By emotionally manipulating family members members into paying for single calls quite than producing accounts (see comic below), the service providers drive increase fee revenue.19 other services — such as charging households to listen to voicemails from their loved ones in jail — likewise manipulate consumers and also increase revenue native fees. No public safety nor customer “convenience” advantage from these unnecessary however highly lucrative call products.

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It’s simple to see how the phone providers advantage from imposing a selection of burdensome fees, yet how this practice additionally hurts framework does no get sufficient attention. Facilities’ commissions come indigenous phone call themselves, no the fees attached come them. Facilities should because of this want households to it is in making an ext phone calls, but when households are bled dry by high fees, the number of calls they deserve to afford to do goes down. The outcome is fine v the providers, but leaves the framework with much less revenue 보다 they expect. (For sheriffs who already feel uncomfortable charging family members $1/minute, knowledge that they, too, room being ripped off by providers have to push them to negotiate because that contracts the prioritize the understanding of local family members over large corporations.)

The carriers are consolidating the industry to border facilities’ choices and also lock them into unfair contracts

Phone providers, together we explain above, are experienced at creating self-serving contracts that burden consumers through unfair rates and also fees. That is as such in the interest of correctional facilities to be careful and conscientious in selecting a phone contract. Yet the odds of negotiating a fair contract — odds already tilted against facilities, as we’ve shown — are decreasing as phone suppliers buy up their direct competitors and the service providers of related correctional services.

First, together the below timeline illustrates, suppliers are limiting facilities’ choice of vendor by directly purchasing their competitors:

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This timeline of mergers in the prison/jail telephone space shows how GTL and also Securus have, over time, gobbled up many of their competitors. Not displayed are the corresponding sizes20 of each of the companies (GTL is the largest, adhered to by Securus and also — if it were an independent agency — ICSolutions), or the truth that part companies like CenturyLink operate just in partnership through Securus and ICSolutions or the for some carriers (like at&t or Verizon) just the part of their company that was prison and jail phones to be transferred. Additionally, that is possible that one corporate mergers on this timeline might be undone, together Securus’ purchase of ICSolutions is currently under evaluation by the Federal communications Commission and the room of Justice.21

The fact that just two companies now regulate most of the correctional phone sector — and are poised to manage even an ext if Securus acquires ICSolutions — is bad news because that both facilities and consumers.

But the dominant companies have a second monopoly strategy, i m sorry is both much more subtle and much more harmful: purchase non-telephone companies, in order come offer infrastructure packages of unrelated services in one substantial bundled contract.

Bundled contracts incorporate phone phone call with other services, such as video calling technology, digital tablets, and money transport for commissary accounts. This allows providers to change profits indigenous one company to another, thereby hiding the real costs of each company from the facility. Bundling additionally “locks in” contracts because that the provider: It renders it more challenging for the facility to readjust vendors in the future, due to the fact that the facility need to now readjust their phone, email, commissary, and banking equipment all in ~ the very same time.

So even the savviest of facilities are undercutting their future strength by signing risky bundled contracts.


Recommendations:

Taming the correctional phone market will require concentrating on the areas where unjust is concentrated: Jails (rather than only prisons), fees (rather than only rates), and bundled contracts (rather 보다 phone-only contracts). The mass of the occupational lies with particular officials: contracting authorities, state legislatures, windy utilities commissions, the FCC and Congress. Because that those groups, us recommend the following strategies:

Prisons and also jails (and their oversight bodies):

Negotiate better contracts based upon delivering the ideal price come the consumer. (This goes past negotiating for “low” rates; and also requires refusing unnecessary “extras” in the contract and also looking in ~ the total cost to the consumer, consisting of fees.) Refuse to consider contracts the bundle telephone organization with various other goods and services. Framework should constantly know what they are getting and what lock — and also the households — space paying for. Consistently conduct reality tests of exactly how your provider charges and also treats consumers. Together tests should encompass test phone call calls to staff phone number not currently in the provider’s system and should include test deposits make via the instrument most most likely to be provided by the households of incarcerated people, consisting of WesternUnion and MoneyGram. If you uncover your provider is charging consumers past the fees and rates disclosed in her contract, demand that the provider do refunds.

Providers:

Amtel, Lattice and also Securus have to stop do a benefit on WesternUnion and MoneyGram payment fees. The consumers that use these services are among the lowest-income world in the country and also should no be a target because that exploitation.During the request for proposals process, be moral with the infrastructure that high-rate/high-commission contracts room not in the facility’s finest interests. Explain that low-rate/low-commission contract produce similar revenue for the facilities while increasing family members contact.

State Public energy Commissions:

If her state statutes execute not provide you adequate regulatory authority over the industry, instantly go to the legislature and request it so that consumers and also facilities in your state will not continue to be defenseless.

State legislatures:

Require this correctional interactions contracts it is in negotiated ~ above the basis of the lowest price come the consumer. (This goes beyond setting a lid or banning “commissions.”) Ensure that these rules apply to both prisons and also jails.Encourage the State Public energy Commission to investigate and regulate the prison and also jail telephone industry. Be on the lookout for disagreements from companies that they room exempt from regulation since they case to be offering Voice Over net Protocol (VOIP) or web Protocol-enabled (IP-enabled) services. (Some claims deregulated these services once cable phone call markets ended up being competitive, yet such reregulation should not use in a quintessential syndicate such as prison and jail call service.) depending upon your state, you might want come encourage her Public energy Commission to disapprove such arguments as contrary to legislative branch intent, or you may need to happen clarifying legislation.

FCC:

Reject Securus’ application to merge with ICSolutions.Investigate Amtel, Lattice and also Securus for arranging a kickback with WesternUnion and MoneyGram in violation that the FCC’s stimulate prohibiting noting up those money transfer fees.

Congress:


Appendices and also Exhibits:

Appendix Table 1

Drops in instate state prison prices over the last decade.State cost of a 15 minute in-state contact (2008) cost of a15 minutein-state speak to (2019) price Drop (%)
Alaska $5.19 $3.15 39%
Alabama $6.45 $3.34 48%
Arkansas $4.68 $4.80 -3%
Arizona $5.40 $3.34 38%
California $4.23 $2.03 52%
Colorado $5.97 $1.80 70%
Connecticut $4.97 $3.65 27%
Delaware $5.30 $0.60 89%
Florida $1.76 $2.10 -19%
Georgia $4.66 $2.40 48%
Hawaii $3.41 $1.95 43%
Iowa $5.36 $1.65 69%
Idaho $3.80 $1.65 57%
Illinois $6.14 $0.14 98%
Indiana $6.45 $3.60 44%
Kansas $7.70 $2.70 65%
Kentucky $4.30 $3.15 27%
Louisiana $4.81 $3.15 35%
Massachusetts $2.26 $1.50 34%
Maryland $7.05 $0.52 93%
Maine $5.05 $1.35 73%
Michigan $1.80 $2.40 -33%
Minnesota $6.22 $0.75 88%
Missouri $2.40 $0.75 69%
Mississippi $4.70 $0.59 87%
Montana $5.55 $2.15 61%
North Carolina $4.91 $1.50 69%
North Dakota $5.82 $1.19 80%
Nebraska $1.40 $0.94 33%
New Hampshire $2.60 $0.20 92%
New Jersey $7.35 $0.66 91%
New Mexico $3.85 $1.20 69%
Nevada $2.50 $1.65 34%
New York $0.72 $0.65 10%
Ohio $5.55 $0.75 86%
Oklahoma $3.60 $3.00 17%
Oregon $13.61 $2.40 82%
Pennsylvania $5.99 $0.89 85%
Rhode Island $0.70 $0.71 -1%
South Carolina $3.10 $0.83 73%
South Dakota $9.16 $1.20 87%
Tennessee $3.22 $2.40 26%
Texas $3.90 $0.90 77%
Utah $4.48 $2.85 36%
Virginia $5.75 $0.61 89%
Vermont $4.62 $0.59 87%
Washington $2.50 $1.65 34%
Wisconsin $5.17 $1.80 65%
West Virginia $3.65 $0.48 87%
Wyoming $3.55 $1.65 54%

Exhibits


Methodology

This report, that visuals and its appendices pull with each other several different surveys the rates:

2018 jails (in-state calls only): through the exemption of dependence Telephone (see below), we manually looked up prepaid prices on providers’ website November 1st 2018 to November 8 hours 2018 from an in-state number (generally the governor’s number) for each facility provided in the state. (This methodology may have understated the expense of in-state phone calls in a small number of counties if the facility to be within the same “LATA” as the Governor’s office. In those cases, our rates might report a reduced “local” call rate and also not a common in-state call; but we did not have a means to regulate for this straight except in Michigan whereby we manually decided a number located in another “LATA”). In April 2019, us updated the report with the rates of 163 counties that contract v Reliance Telephone. together in 2016, counties that had actually multiple facilities were aggregated together, state prisons were maintained separate from our data top top jails, and also we eliminated police departments. Some facilities are contained twice since providers sometimes do not eliminate the rates/counties from contract they have lost from your website. If us were unable to recognize which provider currently contracts with a facility, we kept both.

The outcomes of this survey space in attachment Table 2, other than for the NCIC facilities. (Unlike many providers, NCIC does not write-up their facility perform or rates online. However, NCIC gave us your facility and also price list so the we might calculate the average jail phone expense in each state on the condition that us not include their facility-level data in the Appendix.)

There space some slight distinctions in these surveys the are appropriate to discuss. First, although an ext comprehensive 보다 our 2016 data, this new survey is still lacking data from several smaller prison phone carriers that perform not post their rates online, including Correct Solutions, City TeleCoin, Turnkey, Consolidated Telecom, Inc. (CTEL), etc. Second, part counties are in one survey however not the other, likely because they changed to or from a provider who does not article rates. Third, our newer survey has two-lower expense providers that were not in the previously survey. (Telmate’s decision come finally post their rates online and also NCIC’s share of their price data through us slightly reduces the average rates reported. Based upon our evaluation of counties for whom prices are obtainable for both years, we think that about half of the $1 decline in the expense of in-state 15 minute phone call calls native 2016 come 2018 is the result of actual decreases in the rates; and about half is the result of these two lower-cost service providers making your data available.

For our survey of WesternUnion and also Moneygram fees, we collected Western Union fees data for a $25 payment to different phone service providers through in-person payments at huge E’s Supermarket, Easthampton, and also Walgreens (225R King St., Northampton, MA) and through digital chats v Western Union Representatives.

We built up data on MoneyGram’s fees for a $25 payment v Moneygram’s digital BillPay feature and in person at Walmart (337 Russell St, Hadley, MA 01035).

Our interactive attribute showing how much a phone contact from various local jails would expense is based upon our so late 2018 inspection of prison rates. The feature consists of only several of the greatest rates from jails in each state, so because that the certain rates of every facilities, see appendix 2. The feature constantly shows the price of the first minute of a speak to for the very first minute of reading the webpage, and then apportions the price of subsequent minutes come each subsequent second. For carriers who bill only on the basis of separation, personal, instance minutes, our feature as such underestimates the expense of each call.

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Our timeline the consolidation in the industry is built upon reviewing every file we could find and also a select number of interviews. The life data and also our note on sourcing for transaction or readjust in condition is in attachment 8. Where ever possible, all dates in the visual are accurate to the nearest 4 minutes 1 year. Because it to be not always clear as soon as these privately held companies were established or when they entered the prison or jail phone market, we pick to stand for start dates that us were not sure about with a faded line. We used a rest in the heat to represent companies’ name changes. Us did not encompass some very small companies, such together Michigan Paytel and American phone call Systems, several of which appeared to have considerable business relationships with big phone companies.

For the sidebar about unjustifiably high phone prices from jails, we supplied commission data for 2014-2017 for select counties in Michigan, which was collected via FOIA requests. Through a goal of representing a range of counties, we requested records from at the very least 54 counties (out of 83 total) and received records from 44. This life data is obtainable in attachment 5. To alleviate the impact of artefacts in the data and to make it possible to to compare counties of various sizes, we average the payments from multiple years and also used the typical Daily population reported in the Census the Jails, 2013 come calculate yearly revenue every incarcerated person.