Nitration that BenzeneSulfonation the Benzene

Nitration and also sulfonation that benzene are two instances of electrophilic aromatic substitution. The nitronium ion (NO2+) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) are the electrophiles and individually react v benzene to provide nitrobenzene and also benzenesulfonic acid respectively.

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Nitration of Benzene

The source of the nitronium ion is through the protonation the nitric mountain by sulfuric acid, which reasons the lose of a water molecule and formation that a nitronium ion.


Sulfuric mountain Activation the Nitric Acid

The an initial step in the nitration of benzene is to activate HNO3with sulfuric mountain to create a more powerful electrophile, the nitronium ion.


Because the nitronium ion is a an excellent electrophile, that is struck by benzene to create Nitrobenzene.



(Resonance creates of the intermediate can be viewed in the generalised electrophilic aromatic substitution)

Sulfonation that Benzene

Sulfonation is a reversible reaction the produces benzenesulfonic acid by including sulfur trioxide and fuming sulfuric acid. The reaction is reversed by including hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic mountain to develop benzene.

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Reverse Sulfonation

Sulfonation that benzene is a reversible reaction. Sulfur trioxide easily reacts with water to create sulfuric acid and also heat. Therefore, by adding heat come benzenesulfonic acid in diluted aqueous sulfuric acid the reaction is reversed.


Further Applications that Nitration and Sulfonation

Nitration is used to include nitrogen to a benzene ring, which can be used further in substitution reactions. The nitro group acts together a ring deactivator. Having actually nitrogen current in a ring is very useful since it deserve to be offered as a directing group and a masking amino group. The assets of fragrant nitrations are very important intermediates in industrial smashville247.netistry.

Because sulfonation is a reversible reaction, it can likewise be provided in more substitution reaction in the form of a directing impede group because it can be quickly removed. The sulfonic group blocks the carbon from being struck by various other substituents and after the reaction is completed it can be eliminated by reverse sulfonation. Benzenesulfonic mountain are also used in the synthesis of detergents, dyes, and sulfa drugs. Bezenesulfonyl Chloride is a precursor to sulfonamides, i beg your pardon are offered in smashville247.netotherapy.