Nitration that BenzeneSulfonation the Benzene

Nitration and also sulfonation that benzene are two instances of electrophilic aromatic substitution. The nitronium ion (NO2+) and sulfur trioxide (SO3) are the electrophiles and individually react v benzene to provide nitrobenzene and also benzenesulfonic acid respectively.

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Nitration of Benzene

The source of the nitronium ion is through the protonation the nitric mountain by sulfuric acid, which reasons the lose of a water molecule and formation that a nitronium ion.

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Sulfuric mountain Activation the Nitric Acid

The an initial step in the nitration of benzene is to activate HNO3with sulfuric mountain to create a more powerful electrophile, the nitronium ion.

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Because the nitronium ion is a an excellent electrophile, that is struck by benzene to create Nitrobenzene.


Mechanism

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(Resonance creates of the intermediate can be viewed in the generalised electrophilic aromatic substitution)



Sulfonation that Benzene

Sulfonation is a reversible reaction the produces benzenesulfonic acid by including sulfur trioxide and fuming sulfuric acid. The reaction is reversed by including hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic mountain to develop benzene.

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Reverse Sulfonation

Sulfonation that benzene is a reversible reaction. Sulfur trioxide easily reacts with water to create sulfuric acid and also heat. Therefore, by adding heat come benzenesulfonic acid in diluted aqueous sulfuric acid the reaction is reversed.

Reversesulfonation.jpghow to add no2 to benzene