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What is Mitosis?

In 1887, the German anatomy biologist, Water Fleming, coined the term mitosis which comes from the Greek language and translates to “wrap thread” indigenous mitos and “act or process” native the osis component of mitosis. This term was based upon the warped object appearance of the chromatin of the cabinet nucleus in the first stages of mitosis. Now, what is mitosis together a process? Mitosis is the process in cell division by i m sorry the cell core of the cell divides (in a multiple phase), giving rise come two identical daughter cells.

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Mitosis wake up in all eukaryotic bio cells (plants, animals, and also fungi). That is the procedure of cell renewal and also growth in a plant, pet or fungus. The is continuously developing throughout our bodies; that is also happening while friend are analysis this. Cells repetitively die; this process is termed apoptosis (programmed cabinet death). For you to continue to be alive and fully functional, these cells should be repetitively replaced. Mitosis is vital to this process. Mitosis is the reason we deserve to grow, cure wounds, and replace damaged cells.

Mitosis is likewise important in biology which give birth asexually: this is the only method that these cells can reproduce. This is the one key process that sustains populations of asexual organisms. Mitosis allows for some organisms to main alternate life step (asexual and sexual, such as fungi).

The crucial to mitosis emerging is the visibility of a nucleus. Therefore, organisms without nuclei (prokaryotes) miss out on out top top this outstanding process.

Before Mitosis

Before mitosis begins, the chromosomes in the cell nucleus of the cell undergo replication. This is because mitosis produces two daughter cells identical to the parental cell; so the variety of chromosomes in the parent and also daughter cells should be the same. Mitosis produces two diploid cell from one diploid cell. Thus, chromosome number must twin before mitosis occurs. Save in mind; diploid describes the number of chromosomes in a cell: haploid cells have actually one set of chromosomes (n), as is uncovered in a gamete (sex cell), conversely, diploid cells have actually two to adjust of chromosomes (2n).

Overview the Mitosis

During mitosis, all chromosomes separate into chromatids (the 2 halves the a chromosome). This chromatids room then be separate in space before cell division, to type the chromatic makeup of every daughter cell. Because there are double the variety of diploid chromosomes in the parental cell (2 X 2n = 4n), when these chromosomes room separated into their chromatids and split right into two groups, each team will have actually the same number of chromatids, and also therefore chromosomes, as each other and as the parental cell. The composition of this chromosomes will additionally be identical. When the chromosomes are separated in space, cell division occurs to develop two daughter cells. Thus, mitosis uses chromosome replication to develop two identical diploid daughter cells, which space genetically identical to the diploid parent cell. This method all your cells have identical DNA composition.

The Phases that Mitosis

The process of mitosis deserve to be mind boggling to grasp fully; right here we will shot to job-related through it systematically. First off, mitosis deserve to be split into 5 phases: Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and also telophase. Some textbooks vary in the variety of phases. In part instances they carry out away v prometaphase and just store the four fundamental phases.

What specifically happens in every phase of mitosis in animals may differ to what wake up in plants. Nonetheless, every cells experience mitosis will certainly in one means or an additional undergo each of the above mentioned phases.

You will should familiarize yourself through the following terms to fully understand the phases the mitosis defined below:

Cell furrow/cleavage furrow
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Image Source: Flickr
The indentation discovered in the cell membrane the a newly divided pet cell
Cell plateThe synthesized division of a plant cabinet laid across the metaphase plate. This later develops the center lamella
CentrioleImage Source: Wikimedia CommonsAn organelle linked with spindle fiber production, situated in the centrosome. These room only uncovered in animal cells
CentrosomeThe part of the cytoplasm which has the centrioles
Microtubules

 

Hollow protein tubes which kind spindle fibers (among other things)
Tubulin
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The protein which makes up microtubules
Kinetochore microtubules 

Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The microtubules which attach the centrosome to the kinetochore
KinetochorePlates the protein in ~ a chromosome’s centromere, to which spindle fibers affix during mitosis
Centromere
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The point of constriction that a chromosome
Cohesin 
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The protein i beg your pardon binds two sister chromatids
Cytokinesis
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
Division the the cytoplasm into two same parts
Equatorial plane/metaphase plate
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Image Source: Wikibooks.org
The midline the the cell along which chromosomes align during metaphase
Interphase
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The period between mitosis occurrences; the duration between one telophase and also the following prophase
Middle lamella
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The cell framework between surrounding plant cabinet walls
Nuclear envelope 
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The dual membrane which encloses the nucleus
NucleolusThe center of rRNA production within the nucleus
Sister chromatids
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Image Source: Wikimedia Commons
The two the same chromatids which form a chromosome
Spindle fibersImage Source: Wikimedia CommonsA bundle of microtubules to run from one pole of the cell to another, along which chromosomes move

Now that the meanings are the end of the method let us acquire started on the nitty gritty of this process.

1. Prophase

This is the longest step of mitosis. Countless important events occur in this phase, the centrioles migrate, the spindle fibers are organized, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, the nucleolus additionally disintegrates, and also the dyed fibers condense (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: The major events arising in the prophase stage image Source: Wikimedia Commons

Prophase in animal cells begins with the hike of two pairs of centrioles from just external the nucleus, in the centrosome, to polar ends of the cell. Once at polar ends of the cell, the centrioles promote the activity of microtubules indigenous the cytoplasm into the spindle fibers. Plant and fungi cells perform not have actually centrioles; therefore, they skip this step.

While this is occurring, the nuclear envelope and also nucleolus disintegrate, release the dyed within. The chromatin condenses, and chromosomes end up being visible. The two chromatids comprising each chromosome space identical and are recognized as sister chromatids. These are organized together through cohesin.

Think the this phase this way, every component of the cell the is affiliated in mitosis changes to prepare because that the complete mitotic process. For example, at the finish of mitosis the daughter cells require equal amounts of identical DNA, for this reason there needs to be a method of making sure that the right components go to the ideal cell. In various other words, there has to be an insurance system for making sure that one cabinet does not end up with two copies of the one chromosome if the various other cell ends up v zero copies of this chromosome. This is completed through the tough work the spindle fibers which pull the components of the one daughter cabinet to the one side while the various other “half” is pulled in the direction of the the opposite end. This way, chromosomes never obtain lost and go to the wrong end. In short, things migrate to your rightful corners.

The existence of the nuclear envelope boundaries how far chromosomes, in particular, deserve to go. So before the cabinet can take into consideration pulling points apart and duplicating the contents, this obstacle need come be gotten rid of somehow. This is why the nuclear envelope disintegrates.

If you monitor the logic above it must be apparent why the other occasions occur. Check out over the explanation presented below of the entire process and climate go.

2. Prometaphase

Prometaphase is an intermediary stage in between prophase and metaphase, here the cell is more prepared for metaphase (figure 2).

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Figure 2: The events of the prometaphase stage. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

The spindle fibers affix to the kinetochore of each chromosome, in ~ opposite sides of the centromere. Every sister chromatid is attached to its spindle fibers. These spindle yarn are made up of kinetochore microtubules. The chromosomes migrate to the equatorial aircraft (or metaphase plate), i m sorry is perpendicular come the spindle fibers.

Here the exact same logic as above applies; that is all about making certain one chromatid end up in one cell.

3. Metaphase

Metaphase refers to the alignment that the chromosomes at the equatorial plate following prometaphase.

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Figure 3: The alignment of chromosomes at metaphase. Picture Source: Wikimedia Commons

Each centromere is aligned v the equatorial plate if the chromosome arms extend towards the poles. Every sister chromatid (still join at this point) is on a various side of the equatorial bowl (figure 3).

4. Anaphase

The Anaphase phase is the shortest phase of mitosis.

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Figure 4: sister chromatids room pulled towards opposite poles that the parental cell. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

During this phase, disjunction occurs, and also migration the sister chromatids far from each other to the poles that the cell occurs, bring about the development of daughter chromosomes.

Molecular electric motors use ATP come shorten the spindle fibers attached to each sister chromatid. In so doing, the chromosomes are split into 2 genetically the same sister chromatids, known as daughter chromosomes native this point. This event is known as disjunction. Together the spindle yarn shorten further, the daughter chromosomes are attracted further apart until grouped at opposite end of the cell.

There is now a diploid variety of chromosomes at every pole.

5. Telophase

Telophase is the final phase the mitosis. ~ anaphase, 2 diploid sets of chromosomes are situated at each pole the the cell. Cytokinesis then occurs to split the cell right into two similar daughter cells.

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Figure 5: The parental cell constricts to kind two daughter cells identical to every other and the parental cell. Picture Source: Wikimedia Commons

In animal cells, the cytoplasm is constricted come the allude that the cell is separated in two. This results in a cell furrow. In tree cells, a cabinet plate is laid at the place of the equatorial plane. This later becomes the center lamella of the tree cell.

Following this, chromosomes are packed to end up being chromatin, a nucleolus reforms, and a atom envelope forms around the chromatin and also nucleolus. The spindle yarn disappear, and the cabinet enters interphase.

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Figure 6: A simplified synopsis of mitosis. Photo Source: Wikimedia Commons

Now that we have explored every the different stages go back reread and try to factor each event. This will provide you with the ability to answer any questions around each and every one of these stages.

Why is Mitosis Important?

Mitosis is essential for three key reasons: advancement and growth cell replacement and also asexual reproduction.

1. Breakthrough and growth

After meiosis has produced a gamete, and also this has fused with another gamete to type an embryo, the embryo grows making use of mitosis. This growth continues throughout one organism’s life, in plants, animals, and fungi. In this way, the original chromosomal collection is preserved.

2. Cell replacement

This occurs once the original cell is damaged or wounded. Brand-new cells are produced to change those the were damaged. Examples of this space the healing of a reduced or a damaged bone. When old cell die, new ones replace them come ensure continuing functionality.

3. Asexual reproduction

Single-celled organisms and particular multicellular organisms use mitosis because that asexual reproduction. This contains reproduction by fragmentation, as in the case of planaria, and also reproduction through budding, as in the instance of sea anemones. Countless plants reproduce utilizing mitosis.

How is Mitosis different from Meiosis?

First, we need to recognize what meiosis is. Meiosis is the replication of cells that results in each daughter cell core containing fifty percent of the parental cell’s chromosomes. Meiosis is used generally for the production of gametes, i m sorry are incorporated in sex-related reproduction. Thus, the main difference between mitosis and also meiosis is the mitosis produces somatic (body) cells, which have the right to go on to become part of any kind of bodily tissue, whereas meiosis only produces germ (sex) cells. Biology which give birth asexually cannot undergo meiosis, vice versa, all eukaryotic bio organisms undergo mitosis.

Mitosis and meiosis are similar in that both deserve to only happen in eukaryotic cells. This is because prokaryotic cells carry out not contain a nucleus within which to begin the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Instead, prokaryotes replicate themselves utilizing binary fission. Both mitosis and meiosis start with DNA replication in the parent cell to produce four set of chromosomes: in mitosis, these sets are separation to form two diploid daughter cells, if in meiosis, this sets are separation to form four haploid daughter cells. This is due to the fact that cells undergo just one division in mitosis, vice versa, they undergo two departments in meiosis.

The table listed below summarizes the similarities and also differences between mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis

Meiosis

Similarities

Can only take place in eukaryotes
DNA replication wake up first
Production the daughter cells based on parent cell’s genetic material
Means of cell replication in plants, animals, and also fungi

Differences

Starts as diploid; ends as diploidStarts together diploid; ends together haploid
Used for growth/healing/asexual reproductionUsed for sexual reproduction
1 atom division2 nuclear divisions
5 phases8 phases
Daughter cell similar to parental cellDaughter cell not identical to parent cell
Results in 2 daughter cellsResults in 4 daughter cells
Produces somatic cellsProduces germ cells
Occurs in asexual and sexual organismsOccurs just in sex-related organisms

Wrapping increase Biology and also Mitosis

We now know that mitosis is the procedure of asexual cabinet replication that is responsible because that an organism’s advancement and growth, its cell replacement, and also, in details organisms, asexual reproduction. Mitosis is, therefore, an integral part of eukaryotic bio functioning. Mitosis different from meiosis in the meiosis is the production of gametes, or sex cells, i m sorry will enable for genetic recombination in sexual organisms. However, there is no mitosis, the embryos created will never thrive to end up being organisms. Mitosis is came before by DNA replication, to type two diploid set of chromosomes. Mitosis has five phases. The very first stage is prophase, wherein the chromatic material is released from the nucleus, and also centromeres migrate to the poles the the cell. Prophase is followed by prometaphase, where the chromosomes move to align in ~ the equatorial plane of the cell. The 3rd phase is metaphase, wherein the chromosomes are completely aligned in ~ the equatorial plane. Metaphase is complied with by anaphase, wherein the sister chromatids forming each chromosome space pulled personal to rally at the poles of the cell; and telophase, whereby cytokinesis creates two similar daughter cells, genetically similar to the parent cell. Complying with this, the cabinet enters interphase, the phase between mitosis events.

Mitosis has provided eukaryotic biology the capacity to regenerate cell as vital without to reduce the chromosome collection while meiosis has enabled the opportunity of genetic recombination. Both are critical for the prevalence and also continued survive of eukaryotic bio organisms.

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