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The ocarina has a globular—as opposed to tubular—flute pipe. Consequently, it falls into a subcategory of whistle flutes recognized as ship flutes. Together flutes, of various materials, are discovered in North and South America, Europe, Africa, China, and also Oceania.


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ocarina
Ocarina.
iStockphoto/Thinkstock

The 2nd category of wind instruments comprises reed instruments, or reedpipes, which have a column of air the is caused by the vibrations between the 2 or much more parts of a reed or in between a single reed and also the mouthpiece. In the Sachs-Hornbostel system, every multiple reeds are generically classified as oboes and the solitary reeds together clarinets. Accordingly, the bassoon is an oboe, and the saxophone is a clarinet.

The third category, trumpet-type aerophones, consists of instruments in which the vibration that the player’s compressed lips to adjust the air obelisk in motion. Relying on the shape of the bore (the hole tubular interior of the instrument), trumpet-type aerophones room either trumpets, whose bore is cylindrical, or horns, whose bore is conical, although in practice they are sometimes daunting to distinguish. (Some writers like to speak to horns those instruments known or thought to have arisen from instruments made from animal horns or tusks, terming the remaining lip-vibrated tools trumpets.) Trumpet-type aerophones are more classified in 2 ways: (1) follow to the position of the mouth hole—they room end-blown if the is situated at the top orifice of the tube and also side-blown if pierced what in the side—and (2) through the presence or lack of a mouthpiece. Finally, trumpet-type aerophones are classified follow to construction designed to permit the play of chromatic pitches. They are natural if no so constructed, such together the conch shell and the hoop-shaped baroque trumpet, and also chromatic if built with finger holes, slides, or valves, as is the orchestral trumpet.


ivory trumpet
Side-blown ivory trumpet native Liberia.

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Wesleyan virtual Instrument Museum 2.0 (https://wesomeka.wesleyan.edu/vim2)

With the Sachs-Hornbostel group well in mind, the usual terminology deserve to be offered with the expertise that the term woodwinds refers to flutes and reed instruments and the ax brasses come lip-vibrated aerophones. Because the late 20th century, various other categories have been argued as enhancements to the Sachs-Hornbostel list. Notable amongst these is the human voice, which almost right the criteria because that a double-reed aerophone. Approximating the sound—but not the structure—of reedpipes would be the so-called membranopipes, a proposed category embracing tools that have actually a membrane, together opposed to a reed, to set the column of air in motion.