A research program was conducted to boost processing technology for extract alumina indigenous nonbauxitic. The success that this program had provided the modern technology necessary for developing an enough supply of high-grade alumina from residential sources, thus meeting national economic and also strategic needs relative come aluminum production. The hydrochloric acid procedure for recovering alumina from low-grade ores is one of the processes being investigated in the study program.

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One phase of this process uses the impact of chloride-ion concentration top top the solubility the aluminum ion in solution. In ~ 25° C, the solubility the AlCl3 in pure water is around 31 pct by weight, and decreases with enhancing concentration of hydrochloric mountain (HCl), ending up being 0.1 pct when the HCl concentration is increased to 37 pct. This habits has to be the topic of plenty of investigations, processes, and also patents. Thus it is possible to leach a nonbauxitic ore v HCl, decant and also filter the liquor, and add gaseous HCl come precipitate the end AlCl3·6H2O. The continuing to be acid solution deserve to then be provided for leaching additional ore and the precipitation AlCl3·6H2O can be calcined to attain Al2O3 . An extensive discussion and also evaluation that this process is presented by Peters, Johnson, and Kirby. Thermodynamic data, such together the ionic tasks and the solubilities, compelled for complete analysis, interpretation, and improvement of this procedure are scarce, and the present solubility data are minimal to a narrow range of temperature. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (1) to determine the solubility that AlCl3, in a temperature range of 25° come 85° C v HCl concentration indigenous 0.0 to 37.2 pct; (2) to calculate the activities of AlCl3 and of H2O in services containing miscellaneous electrolytes , and also the equilibrium continuous for the resolution of AlCl3·6H2O; and also (3) come suggest locations of research for generating useful data.


The apparatus supplied for measurements of solubilities is shown in figure 1. A 100-ml flask, A, contains a systems of electrolytes and some overfill salt. A fritted glass filter, B, unify on a 6-mm-OD Pyrex pipe is join to an outer tube attached to 2 Teflon stopcocks, D and E. The height assembly is attached come A in ~ C by a threaded nylon compression fitting through a neoprene 0-ring. A 6-mm-OD polyethylene tube, F-L, it is provided a sample of equipment filtered in ~ B right into the second flask, K, once A is pressurized with stopcock D, and also E is opened. The installation at J is comparable to that at C. The flasks room clamped ~ above a bar, G, i m sorry is attached to a rocking mechanism, through H together the axis the rocking for shaking the flasks, A and K, alternately up and down. A spanned thermostat, 0, is controlled to within ±0.2° C. A closer temperature manage is unnecessary due to the fact that the solubility is a really weak role of temperature.

Experimental Procedure

Measurements that solubilities in ~ 25°, 45°, 65°, and also 85° C were made under conditions of phase equilibrium v analytical reagent-grade materials. Appropriate amounts of AlCl3·6H2O, 37-pct HCl solution, and distilled water were inserted in flask A to kind approximately 90 ml of solution with a tiny amount of overfill salt crystals (hereafter “salt” refers to aluminum chloride hexahydrate). The amounts of products were estimated from the currently solubility data on the ternary system AlCl3·6H2O-HCl-H2O. After ~ the systems was created in flask A and also the apparatus was assembled, it to be immersed in the water to level N, and the thermostat was set to the preferred temperature. A continuous mechanical agitation the the flasks to be used throughout each run lasting 2 to 3 days. Periodically, vigorous manual agitation was likewise used to assure


Areas encourage for research

The measurements of activities are helpful in interpreting thermodynamics and kinetics the leaching, precipitating, and purifying desired components of miscellaneous ores. There space two reasons that the activities can be established accurately indigenous the measurements of vapor pressure of water: (1) The vapor pressure can be measured through a high level of precision by differential push transducers to attain aw by equation 7 and then to calculation the values of the parameters in equation 11 so that all the associated properties have the right to be computed as discussed previously in detail (2) The solubility product and the activities can both be identified accurately for multivalent salts that contain big numbers the water molecules in your hydrated crystals. The second reason occurs from the reality that the exponent the the task of water in equation 4 is equal to the moles of water in the character language crystal.

Aluminum Chloride in Aqueous Hydrochloric mountain Solutions

Another interesting type of experiment for the ternary system questioned here is the measure of the partial pressure of HCl(g) over various solutions comprise sufficiently large amounts of dissolved HCl. The experimental procedure for this purpose is defined elsewhere. Group IIA, IIIA, and change metal salt are excellent candidates because that these species of investigations since electrolytes with higher valences 보다 1:1 usually form hydrated salts.

The solubility and also the activity of aluminum chloride hexahydrate, AlCl3·6H2O, in aqueous remedies were determined as a part of the office of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, research study to enhance mineral processing an innovation for recovering alumina indigenous low-grade residential resources. The solubility the AlCl3 in pure water was discovered to be 31.09 and also 31.77 wt-pct at 25° and also 85° C, respectively, and also decreased drastically to 10 and also 0.1 wt-pct as soon as the respective quantities of 20.3 and 37 wt-pct hydrochloric acid (HCl) were included in solution. The equilibrium constant for the solubility that hexahydrate, activities, and task coefficients of AlCl3 and also H2O to be calculated and also compared through the outcomes from the accessible methods of estimation. The outcomes were displayed to be advantageous in leaching nonbauxitic ores because that extraction the alumina by changing the solubilities the component salts upon addition of HCl.

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Simultaneous solubilities the AlCl3 , FeCl3, KCl, and also NaCl in options of HCl-H2O were likewise determined and also their effects on the purity of AlCl3·6H2O crystallized from combined salt solutions are summary discussed.