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As early as September 1861, the CSA started issuing nationwide currency, promising to salary the bearer the confront amount — six months ~ the ratification the a tranquility treaty.

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Within days of the autumn of fort Sumter, four much more states joined the Confederacy: Virginia, phibìc Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. The fight lines were currently drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in almost every way. Almost 21 million world lived in 23 north states. The South declared just 9 million world — including 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s greater population, however, the South had an army virtually equal in size throughout the very first year of the war.

The North had an enormous industrial advantage as well. At the beginning of the war, the Confederacy had only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. But that statistic to be misleading. In 1860, the North made 97 percent that the country"s firearms, 96 percent of its railroad locomotives, 94 percent the its cloth, 93 percent that its pig iron, and also over 90 percent that its boots and shoes. The North had actually twice the thickness of railroads every square mile. There to be not also one rifleworks in the entire South.


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The southern was at a severe disadvantage when it came to manufacturing, however the Confederacy managed to save its weapons firing by developing ammunition indigenous melted-down bells from churches and town squares.

All of the major ingredients that gunpowder to be imported. Due to the fact that the North managed the navy, the seas were in the hands of the Union. A blockade might suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and willpower.

The South might produce all the food that needed, though transporting it come soldiers and also civilians to be a significant problem. The South additionally had a great nucleus the trained officers. Seven of the eight army colleges in the country were in the South.

The South additionally proved to be really resourceful. By the finish of the war, the had established armories and also foundries in numerous states. They built large gunpowder mills and melted down countless church and also plantation bells for bronze to build cannon.

The South"s best strength put in the fact that it was fighting top top the defensive in its own territory. Familiar with the landscape, Southerners can harass northern invaders.

The military and political missions of the Union were much more an overwhelming to accomplish. The Union had actually to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had actually to ruin the South"s capacity and will to withstand — a formidable difficulty in any war.


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"We had actually the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I can get for my men was salt and also hard crackers. I made the convalescents shooting squirrels, floor hogs, pheasants, and turkeys v which to do soup for the men." -from the memoirs that Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners appreciated the initial benefit of morale: The south was fighting to keep its method of life, whereas the North was fighting to keep a union. Enslavement did not end up being a moral cause of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many vital questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave states of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and also Delaware had actually joined the Confederacy? What if brothers or France had concerned the assist of the South? What if a couple of decisive at an early stage Confederate victories had turned northern public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the north looked much far better on paper. Yet many factors undetermined at the outbreak the war could have tilted the balance sheet toward a various outcome.