This video presents an overview of the Civil war comparing the North and the South. The North had actually 22 states and 22 million people. The South had actually only 11 states and also 9 million people. The North had actually most of the U.S. Gives of and access to coal, iron, and copper. It additionally had 92% the the country’s industry. The North had actually twice as numerous railroads and a vastly bigger navy. At the beginning of the war, the South had no standing army or navy and also the troops were purely voluntary, though they eventually instituted a draft. The North had actually a large advantage in convoy numbers. The southern had benefits as well. Several of the benefits included: They to be fighting top top their own soil with internal lines the defense and knowledge of the terrain. The Southern army officers had an ext experience and ability than their northern counterparts. The southern was fighting to maintain their lives and property, i beg your pardon is much more tangible 보다 fighting for an ideal (preservation that the union, set men free). Finally, the south was able to last as long as they did since they fought a primarily protective war.

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Transcript
Hi, and also welcome come this testimonial of the American polite War! In this video, we’re walk to specifically be talking about the 2 opposing sides, the North and also the South. First, we’ll consider what each side thought the war was around and then look at the differences between the Union and the Confederacy and also compare your strengths and also weaknesses. Let’s gain started!

The American civil War remains the deadliest conflict in American history with a fatality toll that surpasses the combined total the American deaths in the an initial and 2nd World Wars. In some ways it was the an initial modern conflict, through the usage of armored warships, railways, and telegraphs. However in other means it was comparable to the Napoleonic Wars; guys still fought and died shoulder to shoulder, part falling in battle and also others succumbing come dysentery.

The motivations compelling every side to wage together a devastating and also destructive battle were actually rather similar, at least in their own perspectives. Both the North and the South declared to it is in fighting for freedom. The North thought about it a matter of maintaining the Union and also casting turn off the divisive and debilitating constraints of slavery. Because that the South, it to be a fight for political rights and asserting state sovereignty against an overbearing federal government.

The causes of the Civil battle were facility and numerous however ultimately stemmed from the inquiry of slavery. Slavery had always been a point of contention in the united States, but the rapid growth of the united state in the an initial half that the 19th century served to heighten this issue. Brand-new territories elevated the concern of just how they would function, even if it is as totally free or slave states. The Southern says saw the organization of totally free states as a threat, and also by 1858, the totally free states surcharge the slave claims 17-15. The 1860 choice of Abraham Lincoln in November showed to be the last straw because that the southerly states. Southern Carolina to be the first of eleven Southern says to secede indigenous the Union. Lincoln sought to avoid equipped conflict however refused to surrender federal forts to the Confederates. Instead, Lincoln determined to send support and also supplies come Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Supply ships to be turned away and tensions flourished surrounding the fort, causing Confederate chairman Jefferson Davis making a decision come strike versus the fort. On April 12, 1861, Confederate guns fired the an initial shots that the American polite War.

From the outset, the North delighted in a clear benefit in industrial output. Over 80% that the prewar joined States’ industry was focused in the north states. The North to be able to develop its own weapons, and over the food of the war, made over 2 million rifles, when the South often had to rely on imports and captured weapons. This Northern advantage was the product of irreversible trends toward urbanization, education, and also immigration. Before the war, the South had made far-reaching strides front in investing in industry and infrastructure, however still lagged far behind the phibìc on the eve of the civil War.

From 1800-1860, the portion of employees in agriculture fell considerably in the phibìc while they continued to be steady in the South. Around 25% of american in northern states stayed in towns or cities contrasted to around 10% of Southerners. A large influx the German and also Irish immigrants flocked to the United claims in the 18th and also 19th centuries, and the overwhelming majority settled in the North.

The south was a primarily agricultural economy centered roughly the production of raw materials, particularly cotton. Through the use of slaves, the labor burden largely dropped on black shoulders when the rewards fell into a small variety of white hands. The annual cotton productivity doubled each te of the early on 19th century and also prices soared in the 1850s. Fairly than invest profits in industry and infrastructure, well-off Southerners rather bought an ext slaves and an ext land. Aside from the ethical considerations, the booming Southern economic climate was developed upon shaky foundations. More than 95% of southerly output was for export, 70% overseas and 20% was sent to the northern states.

Now, the phibìc technically held more advantages in terms of men, munitions, and ships. Together a mismatch in resources would suggest straightforward victory for the Union, yet the reality proved to be anything but. On paper, the southern stood certain no chance of beating the North, yet wars are not fought on ledgers and also spreadsheets. Together the American transformation had shown nearly a century before and also the Vietnam war would present a century later, large advantages in military strength don’t always an outcome in victory. There were numerous equalizing components which prevent the north from completely exploiting its product advantages.

The first was the corresponding war intends of the North and also the South. The Union had to achieve total victory over the Confederacy, while the South held confidence in their strictly defensive position. There was reluctance that the north to completely commit to an all-out war, which could be checked out in the early strategy to pressure the south to concerned terms. The Anaconda Plan was conceived through the veteran command Winfield Scott to bring the south to a surrender without an excess of bloodshed. The setup involved a marine blockade and also the catch of an essential points on the Mississippi to choke off southerly exports. It to be strategically sound, and also the North maintained a blockade because that the expression of the war, however not sufficient to fulfill the public requirements for decisive action.

In 1860, the joined States army had about 16,000 troops, greatly posted on the frontiers. Through a disproportionate price of trained policemans siding through the South, the shortage the trained leaders caused politically-connected yet inexperienced guys senioring command posts. The vast majority of the guys who fought the battle had little to no armed forces experience. Just before the Battle of Bull Run top top July 21, 1861, the first major engagement of the war, general Irvin McDowell expressed worry his guys weren’t ready to fight. Lincoln, under good political pressure, urged McDowell onward:

“You are environment-friendly it is true; yet they are eco-friendly also; you are environment-friendly alike.”

Lincoln’s position was understandable however his general’s warning confirmed to it is in correct. The Union battle setup fell apart when the guys weren’t maybe to carry it out. The south won the rather shambolic battle but couldn’t fully capitalize top top it. This would certainly be a recurring trouble for the South; Robert E. Lee would often lament his army’s i can not qualify to decisively destroy the Union militaries he defeated. Lee’s strategy hinged ~ above inflicting a terrible defeat ~ above the north to pressure them to terms. The South could not weather the very same losses the North can withstand.

In terms of manpower, the North had actually a much larger populace to attract from and could change losses much more readily 보다 the South. Also so, there were still part complications for the Union once it concerned recruitment. Those who volunteered for service with the Union in 1861 enlisted for just 90 days. When it came to be clear the battle wasn’t going to be almost as brief as initially thought, much longer enlistment periods and also conscription legislations were introduced. Disgusted by the exemption which enabled wealthier northern men to purchase their means out of company with a $300 payment, draft riots broke out in brand-new York in July the 1863. The slogan the the rioters was that it to be “a affluent man’s war yet a poor man’s fight.”

The South had to impose much more drastic measures to to fill the ranks; a series of significantly stringent conscription regulations were passed indigenous 1862-1864. Choose the North, the rich were excused from serving in the military, and also those with holdings of 20 or an ext slaves. Unequal the North, the southern didn’t have the luxury of honoring enlistment periods. As soon as the Confederate army got a uniform ~ above a recruit, there was no method out. As a result, desertion ended up being a serious problem for the Confederacy. Official numbers give a number of 103,000, but the true full might have actually been lot higher.

The discrepancy in resources in between the North and the southern was also present in ~ sea. The South basically had come muster a makeshift marine from scratch and had no method of break the north blockade. Come close the gap, the south made usage of unconventional tools such as mines and an early submarine prototype. The latter device did manage to sink a Union ship but at the price of the crew. The Confederacy eventually succumbed to the linked effects the the naval blockade and also territorial and battlefield losses. The Union victory had not come easily and also was by no method as unavoidable as the material benefits might have actually suggested. Abraham Lincoln likewise had come navigate a difficult political and also diplomatic setting in bespeak to preserve the Union.

All right, come wrap points up, let’s walk over a pair of review questions.

1. Which of the complying with was a key vulnerability that the southern economy?

An export-focused economyPrice-gougingLabor shortagesHigh taxes

The correct answer is A! The emphasis on exporting raw products meant a marine blockade would certainly seriously disrupt the flow of products and ability to sustain a war effort.

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2. I beg your pardon of the following did the north lack?

Industrial capitalShipsTrained officersUniforms

The exactly answer is C! The shortage the trained officers led to the meeting of politically-connected but inexperienced policemans in an elderly positions.