Carolingian dynasty
PippinidsPippin the Elder (c. 580–640)Grimoald (616–656)Childebert the adopted (d. 662)
ArnulfingsArnulf of Metz (582–640)Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697)Ansegisel (c.602–before 679)Pippin the middle (c.635–714)Grimoald II (d. 714)Drogo of Champagne (670–708)Theudoald (d. 714)
CarolingiansCharles Martel (686–741)Carloman (d. 754)Carloman (751–771)Louis the Pious (778–840)
After the treaty of Verdun (843)Lothair i (795–855)(Middle Francia)Charles the bald (823–877)(Western Francia)Louis the German (804–876)(Eastern Francia)

Pepin the Short or Pippin (714 – September 24, 768), frequently known together Pepin the Younger or Pepin III, was market of the palace of Austrasia and the King that the Franks, native 751 come 768, and is finest known for being the father of Charlemagne, or "Charles the Great." His rule, while no as good as one of two people his father"s or son"s, was historically important and of good benefit come the Franks as a people. The can absolutely be argued that Pepin"s presumption of the crown, and the title of Patrician that Rome, to be harbingers that his son"s royal coronation, which is usually seen as the starting of the holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne absolutely made the Carolingians de jure what his father had actually made castle de facto—the ruling dynasty of the Franks and the foremost strength of Europe. While not well-known as a great general, that went undefeated militarily during his lifetime.

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Early Life

Pepin was born in 714, in Jupille, close to the city that Liège, in what is this day Belgium, whereby the Carolingian empire originated. That are was climate a component of the kingdom that Austrasia. His father to be Charles Martel, market of the palace and duke the the Franks, and also his mommy was Chrotrud. Pepin and also his older brother, Carloman, were education and learning by the monks the St. Denis. The monks significantly influenced the brothers during their formative years, greatly impacting their relationship with the church.

In 740, Pepin married Bertrada of Laon, his 2nd cousin. Her father, Charibert, to be the kid of Pepin II"s brother, boy name of Laon. Of their children, two sons and also a daughter endured to adulthood.

Assumption of power

On the death of Pepin"s father, Charles Martel, in 741, strength was passed down to Charles" legitimate sons, Carloman and Pepin together mayors that the palaces of Neustria and also Austrasia respectively. Strength may additionally have been intended for Charles" illegitimate son, Grifo, but he to be imprisoned in a monastery through his 2 half-brothers. Carloman, who by all evidence was a deeply pious man, retired to a monastery in 747. This left Francia in the hand of Pepin as single mayor of the palace and also dux et princeps Francorum, a title originated through his grandfather and namesake Pepin of Heristal.

Under the reorganization that Francia through Charles Martel the dux et princeps Francorum were the commanders of the militaries of the Kingdom, in addition to their governmental duties as mayor of the palace, and also specifically command of the standing guard, which Martel had begun maintaining year-around since Toulouse, in 721.

Upon your assumption, Pepin and also Carloman, who had not showed themselves in battle, in defense that the realm, as their dad had, set up the Merovingian Childeric III together king, also though Martel had actually left the throne vacant because the death of Theuderic IV. Childeric had the location of king, yet he to be a puppet. Together time passed, and also his brothers bowed the end of the picture, Pepin became discontent through the presence of any kind of royal power yet himself.

At the time of Carloman"s retirement, Grifo escaped his imprisonment and fled to duke Odilo of Bavaria, that was married come Hiltrude, Pepin"s sister. Odilo was forced by Pepin to acknowledge Frankish overlordship, yet soon died. Pepin attacked Bavaria and also installed Tassilo III as duke under Frankish overlordship.

First Carolingian king


Since Pepin had control over the magnates and actually had the strength of the king, he chose it to be time to perform what his father had never bothered to do, make the Carolingian name imperial in law and fact. Pepin inquiry Pope Zachary who the royal ruler must be: The human with the location of King, or the person who makes the decisions together King. Since the Pope depended on the Frankish militaries for his independence, and also had depended on them for security from the Lombards because the job of Charles Martel, and Pepin, together his dad had, regulated those armies, the Pope"s prize was established well in advance. The Pope agreed that the de facto power was more important 보다 the de jure power. Thus, Pepin, having obtained the assistance of the papacy, discouraged opposition come his house. He was chosen King of the Franks by one assembly that Frankish leading-men (it have to be listed he had a huge portion that his army on hand, in the event that the nobility inclined not to honor the Papal Bull) and also anointed in ~ Soissons, possibly by Boniface, Archbishop the Mainz, who, in addition to his niece, Saint Leoba, was a court adviser. Meanwhile, Grifo ongoing his rebellion, but was ultimately killed in the battle of Saint-Jean de Maurienne, in 753.

Childeric III was deposed, his hair was shaved off, and also he to be confined to a monastery. He to be the last of the Merovingians.

Expansion that the Frankish realm

Pepin added to his strength after Pope Stephen II traveled all the way to Paris to anoint that in a lavish ceremony in ~ Saint Denis Basilica, bestowing upon the the extr title of patricius Romanorum (Patrician the the Romans). Together life expectancies were short in those days, and also Pepin wanted household continuity, the Pope additionally anointed Pepin"s sons, Charles (eventually known as Charlemagne) and also Carloman.

Pepin"s very first major act was to go to war versus the Lombard king Aistulf, who had a plan of expansion into the ducatus Romanum, together a partial repayment for papal assistance in his quest for the crown. Victorious, he forced the Lombard king come return building seized native the Church and confirmed the papacy in possession of Ravenna and also the Pentapolis, the so-called Donation that Pepin, by which the Papal claims was founded. In 759, the drove the Saracens out of Gaul with the catch of Narbonne and also then consolidated his power more by completely Aquitaine into the kingdom. In acquisition Narbonne, and also formally linking Aquitaine (whose condition was constantly dependent ~ above the toughness of she suzerains), he completed the work of his father conserve for one last task: totally subduing the Saxons. He to be preparing because that war against them once his health started to fail, and also thus, this last task was left for his son, Charlemagne.


Pepin passed away at Saint Denis in 768, and is interred over there in the basilica with his wife, Bertrada. Pepin was buried "outside the entrance (of St. Denis basilica), confront down, for the guilty of his father, Charles Martel."<1> historical opinion often seems to regard him as the lesser son and also lesser dad of two higher men, though a an excellent man in his very own right. He continued to develop up the heavy cavalry which his father had actually begun and also maintained, the standing army that his dad had discovered necessary to safeguard the realm and kind the core of its full army in wartime. Pepin not only preserved his father"s policy of include the Moors, he drove them over and throughout the Pyrenees with the record of Narbonne. He ongoing his father"s growth of the Frankish church (missionary work-related in Germany and Scandinavia) and also the framework (feudalism) that would certainly prove the backbone of middle ages Europe.

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Carolingian DynastyBorn: 714; Died: 768
Preceded by:Charles MartelMayor of the palace of Neustria741–751TitlesRetired
Preceded by:CarlomanMayor the the palace of Austrasia747–751
Preceded by:Childeric IIIKing of the Franks751–768Succeeded by: Charles i andCarloman



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