Note:

To appreciate the energy of scientific notation, let"s start with a an easy example. Utilizing nothing but a pencil and also piece of scrap paper, carry out the following operations:1. Add 5 and 3.2. Divide 100 by 52, to the nearest tenth.3. Subtract 503 indigenous 10300.4. Multiply 34,074,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000 by 0.0000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000 0000000000732.Having any trouble?

Chances are you were breezing follow me pretty smoothly until you involved problem 4. Once numbers autumn within a scale that you can intuitively grasp, it"s adequate to represent them v the symbols you"ve known since kindergarten. However the range of numbers one works through when experimenting the Universe"s full scale is therefore overwhelming that a new technique of representing them i do not care essential.

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Scientific notation is such a method, and in science it"s together imperative together elementary institution multiplication tables. The general form of a number in scientific notation is:

N x 10x,

which in native reads: N time 10 raised to the strength of x, where x is dubbed the exponent, or power of 10. To convert an simple number to its clinical notation counterpart, here"s a two-step process:

1. Situate the decimal point of your number, and move it one of two people to the appropriate or come the left, so the there is just one non-zero number to the left the it. This new number is her N.

2. Count the number of spaces girlfriend just had to move your decimal point. If you moved to the left, then each space adds 1 to x (where x begins at zero.) If you relocated to the right, then each room adds -1 to x.

EXAMPLE 1: 5,230,400.00For step 1, you require to relocate the decimal suggest 6 locations to the left. The number now reads: 5.23040000, or 5.2304 (since any kind of trailing zeroes might be dropped.) so 5.2304 is your value of N.

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For step 2, recall that you have actually moved 6 placess to the left, so that your worth of x = 6. So your number in scientific notation is: 5.2304x106, or "5.2304 time 10 to the 6th (power.)"

EXAMPLE 2: 0.00038This time, you relocate the decimal allude to the right, 4 spaces. N = 3.8 and also x = -4. So her number in scientific notation becomes: 3.8x10-4, or 3.8 times 10 to the negative-fourth (power.)

Once you have actually converted your number into scientific notation, girlfriend will uncover that computations end up being much easier. Here are five rules that numbers in clinical notation obey:

MULTIPLICATION:

*

EXAMPLE:

*

DIVISION:

*

ex:

*

ADDITION and SUBTRACTION:

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*

*

*

*

This one"s trickier. In the an initial number being multiplied, 10 is increased to the power of 5, while in the second number, 10 is raised to the strength of 6. To include these 2 numbers, we must write lock both making use of the very same exponent. For this reason we"ll require to adjust the kind of one of them. We"ll (arbitrarily) pick the very first number, and adjust (4 x 105) to a form with exponent 6 instead of 5. Remember that for every decimal change to the left we include +1 to the exponent, and also for each change to the ideal we include -1. Because we want to add +1 come our exponent the 5, we relocate the decimal allude once come the left, and our number becomes: (0.4 x 106.)

now both numbers have the same exponent worth of 6. Adding them, we find:

*

EXPONENTIAL OPERATIONS

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*

*

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(Recall that raising a number to the power 1/2 is tantamount to acquisition the square root.)

RAISING to THE power OF ZERO

One special situation is worthy that being listed here: elevating a number to the power of zero. You might think that anything elevated to the strength of zero would be zero. Yet consider the trouble that that would cause:

Anything divided by itself is 1. In particular,(103)/(103) = 1.But (103)/(103) deserve to be express as(103)(10-3),

and by the dominance of including and individually exponents, (103)(10-3) = 10(3-3)which = 100; as such 100 need to equal 1.