Atlantic Canada contains the provinces of brand-new Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island (Figure 1a, b). Newfoundland and also Labrador has actually the biggest area of the 4 provinces, much more than three times the land area of the three maritime Provinces combined, and extends indigenous latitude 60 °23"N (Cape Chidley) to latitude 46°37"N (Cape Pine). That the three naval Provinces, brand-new Brunswick is the largest and Prince Edward Island the smallest. The southernmost allude in Atlantic Canada is Cape Sable, NS (43 °28"N). With the exceptions of Churchill Falls, Labrador City and Wabush, NL, no community is more than 200 kilometres from the nearest naval shoreline.

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number 1a: communities in the Atlantic provinces: brand-new Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island.larger image


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FIGURE 1b: Newfoundland and Labrador bigger image


1.1 demographic PROFILE

Atlantic Canada includes the entire region — the provinces of new Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, and also Newfoundland and also Labrador.Maritime Canada (or the Maritimes) includes brand-new Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and also Prince Edward Island, yet not Newfoundland and also Labrador.

The total population of the 4 Atlantic provinces was 2.34 million in 2005 (Statistics Canada, 2005a, b), virtually unchanged from 2004. If Newfoundland and Labrador and brand-new Brunswick knowledgeable a decline in population, Prince Edward Island and also Nova Scotia showed rise in population during the same period (Table 1). Since most neighborhoods of the region are aging (Table 1) and also have average annual incomes below the nationwide average, any kind of impacts as result of climate readjust will represent an additional challenge to these provinces.

TABLE 1: demography parameters because that the Atlantic districts (from Statistics Canada, 2005a, b). new Brunswick Newfound- land and also Labrador Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island Canada Population, 2005 Population change, 2004-2005 (%) Net interprovincial migration, 2004-2005(1) Population density, 2005 (persons/km2) Urban (%)(3) Ages 0-14 (%) Ages 15-64 (%) Ages 65+ (%) Projected population by 2030
752 000 516 000 937 900 138 100 32 270 500
-0.01 -0.25 +0.04 +0.14 +0.9
-1650 -1875 -473 -222 N/A
10.3 1.27(2) 17.0 24.4 3.2
50 58 56 45 80
16.1 15.7 16.2 17.7 17.6
69.9 71.2 69.5 68.2 69.3
13.9 13.1 14.2 14.1 13.1
742 600 (-1.3%) 490 000 (-5.3%) 940 100 (+0.02%) 141 500 (+2.1%) 36 182 300 (+11.1%)

1 contains migration between Canadian provinces, both within and also outside Atlantic Canada; for all 4 provinces, the dominant destinations were Alberta and Ontario (Statistics Canada, 2005a, b)2Newfoundland 4.38 persons/km2; Labrador 0.95 persons/km232001 census

1.2 ECONOMY

Atlantic Canada has numerous landscape communities, along with urban centres such together the Halifax local Municipality, Cape Breton local Municipality, Moncton, Saint John, Fredericton, Charlottetown and St. John’s. Comprehensive discrepancies exist between rural and also urban areas, with rural neighborhoods generally significant by populaces with fewer financial resources, causing the out-migration phenomenon observed in landscape Atlantic Canada. Population growth prices in Halifax (+4.6%) and Moncton (+3.6%) between 1996 and also 2001 room in contrast to losses in rural locations (Statistics Canada, 2001b). Of the twenty regional economic zones throughout Newfoundland and also Labrador, only 5 are projected come have population increases in between 2006 and also 2019 (Newfoundland and also Labrador department of Finance, 2007).

Socioeconomic differences between rural and also urban locations can lead to differences in neighborhood vulnerability to the results of excessive weather events and climate adjust (Morrow, 1999; Alchorn and Blanchard, 2004; Catto and also Hickman, 2004). Historically, a huge part of the population of Atlantic Canada relied on herbal resources, including fisheries, agriculture, forestry and also mining.With globalization and changing demographics, however, Atlantic Canada has actually experienced a significant reduction of tasks in areas relying ~ above a single resource-based sector (e.g. Commercial Cape Breton, NS; Shippagan, NB; Stephenville and also Harbour Breton, NL). Burgeo, NL is usual of countless fishery-dependent communities: in may 2001, the employment price for people aged 18 come 64 to be 35%, in contrast to the provincial price of 55% (Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, 2006). The urbanized areas of Atlantic Canada have been the main emphasis of the regional economy, and also have watched greater opportunities in the an international market. This divergent local development has developed a gap in between rural and urban regions. The labour market has been transformed throughout the previous several years from having vital rural component, with a resource-based economy, to a labour pressure that relies mostly on modern technology and progressed knowledge to contend at the worldwide market level. The employees with better skills deserve to get new jobs, greatly in services and entrepreneurship. Countless are now self-employed workers, happen business and also the economic climate of the Atlantic districts to national and international markets. Simultaneously, the resource-based rural and smaller areas are facing international competition, specifically in fish handling and paper manufacturing, and also domestic competition, mainly with potatoes and also other agricultural products. In countless rural areas, the response of part workers has actually been to leaving Atlantic Canada searching for employment, or to expropriate positions in west Canada while preserving permanent residences and leaving immediate household in Atlantic Canada. Both rural and urban economic climates are sensitive to alters in the worldwide market. Job maintenance and creation are very dependent top top the competitiveness and productivity that businesses, and on intergovernmental and foreign policies. Accessibility to marine transportation has actually helped this region contribute to Canada’s trade balance.With future climate change, this hefty reliance on marine and seaside systems and communities may increase vulnerability, especially if transportation and also infrastructure are disrupted by storm events.

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1.3 aboriginal COMMUNITIES

Aboriginal communities, including Innu, Inuit and also Migmag amongst others, have a distinctive collection of socioeconomic conditions. Characteristically, these communities have greater proportions of young citizen (e.g. 43.1% that the population of Nain in 2001 was 19 years of period or younger; federal government of Newfoundland and also Labrador, 2006). Per capita earnings and incomes are lower than for the general populations that the an ar (e.g. Because that Lennox Island, PE, the median complete income for persons 15 and also over to be $12 272 in 2001, compared with a provincial mean of $18 880; Statistics Canada, 2001b). Education and learning levels are typically lower too (e.g. At Whycocomagh, NS, 29.4% the the populace between eras 20 and also 34 have not graduated from high school, contrasted with 16.1% the the general populace of Nova Scotia; Statistics Canada, 2001b).