This tutorial describes the an easy functions, operations, and also characteristics the a computer. Discover the four significant functions of a computer system through diagrams and also examples.

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Taking data and instructions native a user, handling the data as per instructions, and displaying or save the handle data, room the four significant functions the a computer. These functions are also known as the entry function, process function, calculation function, and also storage function, respectively.

The complying with diagram shows an instance of these functions.


To provide these functions, a computer system uses its components or devices. Usually, contents of a computer system are draft to execute only one of these four functions. But, some devoted components or gadgets are designed to do two, three or all 4 functions. Because that example, a hard disk deserve to perform three functions: input (when documents are read), warehouse (when records are saved), and output (when documents are written).

Components or tools of a computer, based upon the role in which they room used, have the right to be classified right into four major types: the input devices, output devices, warehouse devices, and also processing devices. For example, if a component processes the provided instructions, the component is recognized as the processing device. Or if a device displays the handle data, the an equipment is recognized as the output device.

Input role and devices

A computer system is a data processing machine. It does nothing until a user (or a manuscript or a program) gives the data that needs to be processed and the instructions the tell it exactly how to procedure the data.

Any standard maker or component the a user provides to instruct a computer is well-known as the traditional input device. In various other words, a computer system uses its typical input tools or materials to acquire instructions indigenous a user.

The most usual input tools are the keyboard and also mouse. Virtually all contemporary computers have these devices. Other usual input gadgets are scanners, microphones, USB drives, and also webcams.

Input data and also instruction can additionally be generated from a non-standard input an equipment such as the tough disk and also CD/DVD. Because that example, a batch record in the home windows system might instruct the CPU come execute a routine or a script at a details time.

Installation disks are another great example of non-standard entry devices. Usually, they contain a manuscript or an executable regime that immediately starts the installation procedure as shortly as the disk is read.

Process duty and devices

Once the data and instructions are received by the input function, the computer system starts the processing function. In this function, a computer system processes the got data according to the instructions.

To process the entry data follow to the instructions, the computer system uses the CPU. A CPU is the main processing ingredient of a computer. It processes user instructions, executes scripts and also programs, and also runs commands of the OS that provide a platform for installing and also using application software.

Other important processing materials are auxiliary processors. Auxiliary processors are additionally known as onboard processors. Assistant processors are used in gadgets to boost their functionalities. You deserve to think that an assistant processor as the private CPU the a device.

Only contents or gadgets that administer the complicated functionality such together Graphics cards, I/O devices, and network interface cards usage auxiliary processors. Because that example, if a user paint, etc an image, the auxiliary processor ~ above the graphics card performs every calculations that require in drawing the picture on the display screen device.

The adhering to image reflects a sample the both a CPU and an auxiliary processor.


The following table perform the main differences in between a CPU and also an assistant processor.

CPUAuxiliary processor
A CPU is a compulsory component. There is no it, a computer does not work.An auxiliary processor is one optional component.
A CPU is an individual component. The is installed independently in the system.An assistant processor is an integrated component of a device. It can’t be installed separately.
A CPU is draft to perform all types of tasks.An assistant processor is designed come perform only a specific kind of task.

Output role and devices

After processing the intake data, the CPU, assistant processor, or the procedure function sends the handle data come the output role or come the default or configured calculation device. Through default, computers use monitors as the default output device.

Aside native monitor, a selection of output devices are also available. Every output machine presents the processed data in a different form, for example, a monitor, a printer, and also a speaker displays, prints, and plays the handle data, respectively.

A user, based on his requirement, have the right to connect and use two, three or more output tools to the computer. For example, ~ viewing the handle data, a user can send it to the press for printing.

Storage function and devices

Storing data and also information is the fourth significant function the a computer. This function allows united state to conserve the handle data for later use. To store data and information, a computer uses two types of warehouse components: temporary and also permanent.

Temporary storage contents are used to save data temporarily. Data save in a short-term storage component is erased when the system is shutdown. Lamb is a compulsory short-lived storage component. A computer uses the ram to save the running applications and also their data.

Permanent storage contents are provided to keep data permanently. Data save on computer in a permanent storage component is not erased as soon as the device is shutdown. The tough disk is the most typical permanent storage component. Usually, all computers have at the very least one tough disk to store data. Other common permanent storage contents or devices are external drives, USB drives, and CD/DVD.

The adhering to image shows an example of both types of warehouse components.


Storage devices are also used in the input and also output functions, enabling data come be saved (output function) and then accessed again later (input function).


The following table perform a couple of sample actions together with the surname of devices and also functions the are provided when they are performed.

A user to run a text-editor program types the letter Z top top the keyboard. The key-board sends a password representing the letter Z to the CPU. KeyboardInput
The CPU processes the code and determines what letter to be typed. Then the CPU sends out instructions come the monitor to display the letter Z.CPUProcess
The monitor screens the letter Z.MonitorOutput
The user clicks the Save button. The computer mouse sends a code representing the click.MouseInput
The CPU processes the code and determines what action was clicked. CPUProcess
The CPU saves the paper on the disk.

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Hard diskStorage

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