Indigestion

The process of digestion does not always go as it should. Many people suffer from indigestion, or dyspepsia, a condition of impaired digestion. Symptoms may include upper abdominal fullness or pain, heartburn, nausea, belching, or some combination of these symptoms. The majority of cases of indigestion occur without evidence of an organic disease that is likely to explain the symptoms. Anxiety or certain foods or medications (such as aspirin) may be contributing factors in these cases. In other cases, indigestion is a symptom of an organic disease, most often gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or gastritis. In a small minority of cases, indigestion is a symptom of a peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum, usually caused by a bacterial infection. Very rarely, indigestion is a sign of cancer.

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An occasional bout of indigestion is usually nothing to worry about, especially in people less than 55 years of age. However, if you suffer frequent or chronic indigestion, it’s a good idea to see a doctor. If an underlying disorder such as GERD or an ulcer is causing indigestion, this can and should be treated. If no organic disease is discovered, the doctor can recommend lifestyle changes or treatments to help prevent or soothe the symptoms of acute indigestion. Lifestyle changes might include modifications in eating habits, such as eating more slowly, eating smaller meals, or avoiding fatty foods. You also might be advised to refrain from taking certain medications, especially on an empty stomach. The use of antacids or other medications to relieve symptoms may also be recommended

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Mechanical Digestion

Mechanical digestion is a physical process in which food is broken into smaller pieces without becoming changed chemically. It begins with your first bite of food and continues as you chew food with your teeth into smaller pieces. The process of mechanical digestion continues in the stomach. This muscular organ churns and mixes the food it contains, an action that breaks any solid food into still smaller pieces.

Although some mechanical digestion also occurs in the intestines, it is mostly completed by the time food leaves the stomach. At that stage, food in the GI tract has been changed to the thick semi-fluid called chyme. Mechanical digestion is necessary so that chemical digestion can be effective. Mechanical digestion tremendously increases the surface area of food particles so they can be acted upon more effectively by digestive enzymes.


Chemical Digestion

Chemical digestion is the smashville247.netchemical process in which macromolecules in food are changed into smaller molecules that can be absorbed into body fluids and transported to cells throughout the body. Substances in food that must be chemically digested include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates must be broken down into simple sugars, proteins into amino acids, lipids into fatty acids and glycerol, and nucleic acids into nitrogen bases and sugars. Some chemical digestion takes place in the mouth and stomach, but most of it occurs in the first part of the small intestine (duodenum).








Absorption

When digestion is finished, it results in many simple nutrient molecules that must go through the process of absorption from the GI tract by blood or lymph so they can be used by cells throughout the body. A few substances are absorbed in the stomach and large intestine. For example, water is absorbed in both of these organs, and some minerals and vitamins are also absorbed in the large intestine. However, about 95 percent of nutrient molecules are absorbed in the small intestine. The absorption of the majority of these molecules takes place in the second part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. However, there are a few exceptions. For example, iron is absorbed in the duodenum, and vitamin B12 is absorbed in the last part of the small intestine, called the ileum. After being absorbed in the small intestine, nutrient molecules are transported to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical modification. For example, amino acids are transported to the liver to be used for protein synthesis.

The epithelial tissue lining the small intestine is specialized for absorption. It has many wrinkles and is covered with villi and microvilli, creating an enormous surface area for absorption. As shown in Figure \(\PageIndex{3}\), each villus also has a network of blood capillaries and fine lymphatic vessels called lacteals close to its surface. The thin surface layer of epithelial cells of the villi transports nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine into these capillaries and lacteals. Blood in the capillaries absorbs most of the molecules, including simple sugars, amino acids, glycerol, salts, and water-soluble vitamins (vitamin C and the many B vitamins). Lymph in the lacteals absorbs fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K).

Intestinal villus How Many Dry Cups Per Pound Of Dog Food Taking A Big Bite Out Of Your Budget?

An occasional bout of indigestion is usually nothing to worry about, especially in people less than 55 years of age. However, if you suffer frequent or chronic indigestion, it’s a good idea to see a doctor. If an underlying disorder such as GERD or an ulcer is causing indigestion, this can and should be treated. If no organic disease is discovered, the doctor can recommend lifestyle changes or treatments to help prevent or soothe the symptoms of acute indigestion. Lifestyle changes might include modifications in eating habits, such as eating more slowly, eating smaller meals, or avoiding fatty foods. You also might be advised to refrain from taking certain medications, especially on an empty stomach. The use of antacids or other medications to relieve symptoms may also be recommended.