I"ve always understood the "dys-" prefix to be in comparison to an "a-" prefix, whereby "dys-" method something like "born without" and "a-" means "loss of." my favorite example of the comparison is "dyslexia" vs. "alexia", through the first an interpretation inherent problems with reading and the second an interpretation loss that the capacity to read. Same with "dysphasia"/"aphasia" and also "acalculia"/"dyscalculia."

This is a good example of mistaken etymological generalization from limited evidence. In truth the dys- prefix is usually claimed to it is in in contrast to the eu- prefix, no the a- prefix, though this is greatly an etymological idea fairly than a reality of usage. In any type of case, dys- doesn"t typically refer come inborn problems, however simply come abnormal, difficult, impaired, or poor characteristics.

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I took that list of adjective from Merriam-Webster, i beg your pardon glosses dys- as

abnormal// dysplasiaimpaired// dysfunction

The OED offers the etymology as

representing Greek δυσ- <= Sanskrit dus-, Old german *tuz-, Old High German zúr- (German zer-), Old norse tor-, Old English tó- in to-break, etc.> ‘inseparable prefix, protest to εὖ eu- comb. Form> , with concept of hard, bad, unlucky, etc.; destroying the good sense of a word, or raising its negative sense’ (Liddell and also Scott).

Some other examples with their OED glosses:

dysarthria: defective or deranged articulation in speakingdyschezia: an overwhelming or ache defecationdysfunction: any abnormality or special needs of functiondyskinesia: a class of illness in which voluntary movement is impededdysmetria: inability to control the selection of motion in a muscular actiondysmorphic: malformeddyspepsia: difficulty or derangement of digestion; indigestion: used to various creates of disorder that the digestive organs, esp. The stomach, usually entailing weakness, ns of appetite, and also depression of spiritsdysphoria: A state or condition marked by feel of unease or (mental) discomfortdysrhythmia: an abnormal or disordered rhythm; spec., one abnormal rhythm in the electric waves presented in an electroencephalogramdysthymia: despondency or depression

The commonest English dys- native is dysfunctional, specifically popular in "dysfunctional family". No afunctional nor eufunctional has any currency. And also certainly there"s no typical contrast between dysfunctional and afunctional families, through the former condition being inborn and also the last one acquired.

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As because that dyslexia, the idea the the word always refers come an innate condition is directly called into question through the large literature top top "acquired dyslexia", e.g. Badderley et al., "Developmental and also acquired dyslexia: A comparison", Cognition 1982, and also by the big literature attributing the prevalence of reading challenges to faulty teaching methods.