Distinguished historians of science give an appraisal of Sir Charles Lyell's life and works, and his influence through his travels across Europe and North America. Leading geologists assess Lyell's subsequent influence on climatology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, coal geology, regional tectonics, volcanology and natural hazards. Modern geological research constructed upon Lyell's legacy illustrates its wealth, 200 years on from his birth. The 23 contributions are arranged in three parts, entitlted: The life and influence of Lyell, Lyell and the development of geological science, and The legacy of Lyell, respectively.

You are watching: The past is the key to the present


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... Halokinesis arising from the Latest Precambrian-Early Cambrian Hormuz Salt in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt and Persian Gulf has been a subject of interest for decades (e.g., Harrison, 1930;Kent, 1958;Player, 1969;Ala, 1974;McQuillan, 1991;Edgell, 1996;Talbot and Alavi, 1996;Talbot, 1998;Bahroudi and Koyi, 2003;Letouzey and Sherkati, 2004;Callot et al., 2007Callot et al., , 2012Jahani et al., 2007Jahani et al., , 2009Jahani et al., , 2017Perotti et al., 2016). Diapirs of Hormuz Salt are mainly concentrated in the southeast part of the folded belt and the Persian Gulf (Fig. 1). ...
Evolution of the Karebas Fault System and adjacent folds, central Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran: Role of pre-existing halokinesis (salt structures and minibasins) and detachment levels
In the central part of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of Iran, several diapirs of the Latest Precambrian–EarlyCambrian Hormuz Salt locally decorate the surface exposures of a series of N–S to NNW–SSE trending right-lateral tear fault systems. The Karebas Fault System (KBFS), as one of these fault systems, is associated with five salt diapirs. There are also several NW–SE trending anticlines, which are either cross-cut by the fault system or terminated against it and the adjacent salt diapirs. The Neogene Zagros folds are clearly affected by the surfaceexpression of the Karebas Fault System, suggesting that the fault system is coeval with or post-dates the Neogene deformation. On the contrary, halokinesis as old as at least Late Jurassic is documented by near-diapir stratigraphic exposures, indicating pre-orogenic existence of the diapirs. Although the lack of older rock outcrops precludes tracking the pre-Jurassic records of diapirism, the geometry of strata, which flank these diapirs, indicates long-term pre-folding salt rise driven by downbuilding of lateral minibasins and progressive draping of sedimentary layers over the flanks of the rising diapirs. Therefore, presence of old salt structures along the young (Neogene) tear fault system suggests an important role played by the presence of early-formed salt structures in inducing later strike-slip deformation along zones of preferential weakness, which was prepared by the pre-folding salt structures and thinner sedimentary pile overlying them. Salt diapirs and related changes in stratigraphic thicknesses (i.e. minibasins) also effectively grappled with the process of folding. Detachment folding is typically the main structural style across the area, and was mainly developed above the Hormuz Salt as the basal décollement and partly by involvement of the intermediate detachment levels. However, preferential weakness and squeezing of the diapirs on one hand and greater strength of the minibasins on the other hand gave rise to further complexities of deformation during shortening. Such first-order controls could led to perturbations, at the scale of diapirs and minibasins, in the stress pattern as the southwestward-advancing front of the Zagros deformation migrated across the stratigraphic section and the salt structures. It occurred because strain is localized at the diapirs and squeezes them whereas tends to avoid folding the thick, and hence stronger, minibasins into anticlines. In such a context, the localization and the longitudinal propagation of the folds in the cover sequence could be remarkably influenced and irregular. The consequence was variable fold geometries (location and dimension) and fold-axes rotations with respect to the diapirs and minibasins.

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... In no period of modern structural geologic studies have fossil faults been considered as the origin and destination subject of investigations. However, the interconnectedness of different objects in geological structures, very long-term (order of billions of years) consistency of simple but important rules on Earth, stress, strain and deformation mechanisms, rheology and rock mechanics has provided an opportunity for structural geologists to apply Charles Lyell's law "the present is the key for the past" (Blundell and Scott, 1998;Mathieson, 2002). Fossil faults are a major source of information about past geological processes that were active at some depth in Earth's lithosphere, and also provide an opportunity for proposing and predicting the future in structural geology. ...