To get an expertise of the relationship in between spontaneity, free energy, and temperature.To be able to calculate the temperature in ~ which a process is at equilibrium under typical conditions.

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In the Gibbs cost-free energy adjust equation, the only component we as scientists have the right to control is the temperature. We have actually seen how we can calculate the standard change in Gibbs cost-free energy, ΔG°, yet not every reactions we are interested in occur at specifically 298 K. The temperature plays vital role in determining the Gibbs totally free energy and spontaneity of a reaction.


If we research the Gibbs totally free energy adjust equation, we have the right to cluster the materials to produce two general terms, an enthalpy term, ΔH, and an entropy term, –TΔS. Depending on the sign and also magnitude that each, the amount of these terms determines the authorize of ΔG and also therefore the spontaneity (Table 18.2 “Spontaneity and the Signs of Enthalpy and Entropy Terms”).

Table 18.2 Spontaneity and the indications of Enthalpy and Entropy TermsΔHΔSTΔSΔGSpontaneity
++ or −Low temp: SpontaneousHigh temp: Nonspontaneous
+++ or −Low temp: NonspontaneousHigh temp: Spontaneous

Since all temperature worths are confident in the Kelvin scale, the temperature affects the size of the entropy term. As displayed in Table 18.2 “Spontaneity and the Signs of Enthalpy and Entropy Terms,” the temperature can be the deciding variable in spontaneity once the enthalpy and entropy terms have opposite signs. If ΔH is negative, and also –TΔS positive, the reaction will be voluntary at low temperatures (decreasing the magnitude of the entropy term). If ΔH is positive, and –TΔS negative, the reaction will certainly be spontaneous in ~ high temperature (increasing the size of the entropy term).

Sometimes it deserve to be advantageous to identify the temperature once ΔG° = 0 and also the process is at equilibrium. Knowing this value, we can readjust the temperature to drive the process to spontaneity or additionally to stop the process from developing spontaneously. Mental that, at equilibrium:

We deserve to rearrange and also solve for the temperature T:


Example 18.6

Using the postposition table of conventional thermodynamic quantities, recognize the temperature at which the following process is in ~ equilibrium:


How walk the worth you calculated to compare to the boiling point of chloroform given in the literature?


At equilibrium:

We should estimate ΔH° and S° from your enthalpies of formation and also standard molar entropies, respectively.


Now we can use these worths to resolve for the temperature:


The literature boiling suggest of chloroform is 61.2°C. The worth we have calculated is very close but slightly lower as result of the assumption that ΔH° and S° execute not change with temperature when we estimate the ΔH° and S° from their enthalpies the formation and also standard molar entropies.

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Key Takeaways

The temperature have the right to be the deciding factor in spontaneity once the enthalpy and also entropy terms have opposite signs:If ΔH is negative, and also –TΔpositive, the reaction will certainly be voluntary at short temperatures (decreasing the size of the entropy term).If ΔH is positive, and –TΔnegative, the reaction will be spontaneous at high temperatures (increasing the size of the entropy term).