Learning Objectives

Discuss several of the environmental and also physical obstacles to reliable listening.Explain exactly how cognitive and personal factors have the right to present barriers to effective listening.Discuss common negative listening practices.

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Barriers to effective listening are current at every phase of the listening process (Hargie, 2011). At the receiving stage, noise can block or distort incoming stimuli. At the interpreting stage, complicated or abstract info may be complicated to relate to previous experiences, make it daunting to reach understanding. At the recalling stage, natural limits to our memory and also challenges come concentration have the right to interfere through remembering. In ~ the analyzing stage, an individual biases and prejudices have the right to lead united state to block world out or assume we understand what they room going come say. In ~ the responding stage, a absence of paraphrasing and questioning skills can cause misunderstanding. In the adhering to section, us will check out how environmental and physical factors, cognitive and personal factors, and also bad listening practices present obstacles to reliable listening.

Environmental and Physical barriers to Listening

Environmental determinants such as lighting, temperature, and furniture influence our capacity to listen. A room the is also dark can make united state sleepy, simply as a room the is too heat or cool deserve to raise awareness the our physical discomfort to a point that it is distracting. Part seating arrangements facilitate listening, when others separate people. In general, hearne is much easier when listeners can make direct eye contact with and are in close physical proximity come a speaker. You may recall from thing 4 “Nonverbal Communication” that when team members are enabled to choose a leader, castle often choose the person who is sit at the facility or head the the table (Andersen, 1999). Even though the human being may not have demonstrated any type of leadership abilities, human being subconsciously gravitate toward speakers that room nonverbally accessible. The ability to properly see and also hear a person increases people’s confidence in their abilities to receive and process information. Eye contact and also physical proximity deserve to still be influenced by noise. As we learned in thing 1 “Introduction to interaction Studies”, ecological noises such together a whirring air conditioner, barking dogs, or a ringing fire alarm have the right to obviously interfere with listening in spite of direct currently of sight and also well-placed furniture.

Physiological noise, like ecological noise, can interfere v our ability to process incoming information. This is taken into consideration a physical obstacle to reliable listening due to the fact that it emanates indigenous our physics body. Physiological noise is noise stemming from a physical illness, injury, or bodily stress. Ailments such together a cold, a damaged leg, a headache, or a toxicity ivy outbreak can selection from annoying to unbearably pains and impact our listening relative to your intensity. Another type of noise, psychological noise, bridges physical and also cognitive barriers to reliable listening. Mental noise, or noise stemming from our mental states including moods and level of arousal, can facilitate or impede listening. Any type of mood or state that arousal, positive or negative, that is too far above or below our regular baseline create a barrier to message reception and processing. The generally positive emotionally state of gift in love can be just as lot of a obstacle as feeling hatred. Excited arousal can additionally distract as much as anxious arousal. Stress about an upcoming occasions ranging from losing a job, to having surgery, to wondering about what come eat because that lunch can overshadow just arrive messages. While we will discover cognitive obstacles to efficient listening more in the following section, emotional noise is relevant here provided that the body and mind space not totally separate. In fact, lock can communicate in means that more interfere v listening. Fatigue, for example, is normally a combination of psychological and also physiological stresses that manifests as stress (psychological noise) and weakness, sleepiness, and also tiredness (physiological noise). Additionally, mental anxiety (psychological noise) can also manifest chin in our bodies v trembling, sweating, blushing, or even breaking out in rash (physiological noise).

Cognitive and personal Barriers to Listening

Aside indigenous the obstacles to effective listening that might be present in the environment or emanate from our bodies, cognitive limits, a lack of hear preparation, challenging or disorganized messages, and prejudices deserve to interfere through listening. Whether you contact it multitasking, daydreaming, glazing over, or drifting off, we all cognitively process other things while receiving messages. If girlfriend think of her listening mind as a wall surface of ten televisions, friend may an alert that in some cases five the the ten televisions room tuned into one channel. If the one channel is a great being offered by her professor, then you are exerting about fifty percent of your cognitive handling abilities on one message. In an additional situation, every ten televisions might be on various channels. The reality that we have actually the capability to process more than one thing at a time uses some advantages and disadvantages. However unless we can much better understand just how our cognitive capacities and an individual preferences influence our listening, we are most likely to experience an ext barriers 보다 benefits.

Difference in between Speech and also Thought Rate

Our ability to process an ext information than what comes from one speak or source creates a barrier to effective listening. While human being speak in ~ a rate of 125 to 175 words per minute, we can process between 400 and also 800 words per minute (Hargie, 2011). This gap between speech rate and thought rate gives us an chance to side-process any number of thoughts that deserve to be distracting native a more important message. Thus gap, the is difficult to give one message our “undivided attention,” yet we deserve to occupy other channels in ours minds through thoughts regarded the central message. Because that example, using few of your extra cognitive handling abilities come repeat, rephrase, or reorganize messages coming from one resource allows girlfriend to use that extra volume in a means that reinforces the main message.

The difference in between speech and also thought rate connects to an individual barriers come listening, as personal concerns are regularly the focus of contending thoughts that have the right to take united state away native listening and challenge our capability to concentration on others’ messages. 2 common barriers to concentration space self-centeredness and lack of an inspiration (Brownell, 1993). For example, when our self-consciousness is raised, we may be as well busy thinking about how us look, how we’re sitting, or what rather think of us to be attentive to an just arrive message. Additionally, we space often challenged when presented v messages the we perform not discover personally relevant. In general, us employ selective attention, which refers to our tendency to pay fist to the messages that benefit us in some method and filter others out. For this reason the student that is checking his or she Twitter feed during class may suddenly switch his or she attention earlier to the formerly ignored professor once the adhering to words are spoken: “This will be vital for the exam.”


Drifting fist is a common barrier to listening. Try to find an individual relevance in the blog post to help maintain concentration.

Another common obstacle to efficient listening the stems native the speech and thought rate divide is solution preparation. Solution preparation refers to our prsmashville247.netsity to practice what we room going come say next while a speak is still talking. Rehearsal the what we will say as soon as a speaker’s revolve is end is an essential part the the listening process that take away place in between the recalling and also evaluation and/or the evaluation and also responding stage. Rehearsal becomes problematic when an answer preparation begins as who is receiving a message and hasn’t had actually time to interact in translate or recall. In this sense, we room listening through the score of responding rather of v the score of understanding, which deserve to lead united state to miss vital information that can influence ours response.

“Getting Plugged In”

Technology, Multitasking, and also Listening

Do you prefer to hear to music if you do homework? execute you clean her apartment while talk to your mom on the phone? execute you think students have to be enabled to use laptops in all college classrooms? your answers come these inquiries will suggest to your preferences for multitasking. If friend answered “yes” to many of them, climate you are in line with the basic practices that the “net generation” of digital natives because that whom multitasking, specifically with various develops of media, is a way of life. Multitasking is a concept that has been around for a while and also emerged along with the increasing expectation that we will fill multiple function demands transparent the day. Multitasking have the right to be nice straightforward and beneficial—for example, if we listen to encouraging music while working out. Yet multitasking deserve to be really inefficient, especially when one or much more of ours concurrent jobs are complex or unfamiliar to united state (Bardhi, Rohm, & Sultan, 2010).

Media multitasking specifically describes the use of multiple develops of media at the very same time, and also it deserve to have optimistic and an adverse effects on hear (Bardhi, Rohm, & Sultan, 2010). The an adverse effects the media multitasking have received lot attention in recent years, as human being question the to decrease attention span within ours society. Media multitasking may promote inefficiency, because it have the right to lead come distractions and also plays a prominent function for many in procrastination. The numerous options for media engagement the we have can likewise lead to a feeling of chaos as our fist is traction in multiple directions, creating a general sense the disorder. And also many of us feel a sense of enslavement as soon as we engage in media multitasking, as we feel choose we can’t live without certain personal media outlets.

Media multitasking can additionally give civilization a sense of control, as they usage multiple innovations to access various points of information to settle a trouble or finish a task. An employee may be able to use she iPad come look up information needed to deal with a problem raised throughout a service meeting. She can then e-mail that link to the presenter, who could share it v the room through his laptop and also a LCD projector. Media multitasking can additionally increase efficiency, as world can carry out tasks faster. The links to videos and also online write-ups that I’ve consisted of in this textbook permit readers choose you come quickly access additional information about a specific subject to prepare because that a presentation or finish a paper assignment. Media multitasking can likewise increase engagement. Aside from just reading product in a textbook, students have the right to now accessibility information through an author’s blog or Twitter account.

Media multitasking can produce an suffer that feeling productive, however is the really? What room the aftermath of our media- and technology-saturated world? Although many of us like to think that we’re good multitaskers, part research shows otherwise. Because that example, college student laptop use during class has been associated to lower scholastic performance (Fried, 2008). This is since media multitasking has the potential to interfere with listening in ~ multiple stages of the process. The study showed that laptop use interfered through receiving, together students using them reported the they paid less attention to the class lectures. This is since students supplied the laptops for purposes other than taking notes or exploring course content. Of the students utilizing laptops, 81 percent confirm e-mail throughout lectures, 68 percent used prompt messaging, and also 43 percent surfed the web. Students utilizing laptops also had difficulty with the interpretation stage of listening, together they uncovered less clarity in the parts of the lecture lock heard and did not know the course material as lot as students who didn’t use a laptop. The challenges with receiving and interpreting clearly create concerns with remind that can lead come lower academic performance in the class. Laptop use also negatively influenced the listening abilities of students not making use of laptops. These students reported the they to be distracted, as their attention was drawn to the laptop displays of other students.

What room some typical ways that you interact in media multitasking? What space some confident and negative consequences of her media multitasking?What strategies perform you or might you use to assist minimize the negative effects that media multitasking?Should laptops, smartphones, and also other media devices be offered by students during college classes? Why or why not? What limitations or guidelines for use could instructors carry out that would capitalize top top the visibility of together media to boost student learning and aid minimize distractions?

Lack of hear Preparation

Another barrier to reliable listening is a general lack of hear preparation. Unfortunately, most civilization have never ever received any kind of formal maintain or instruction related to listening. Back some human being think listening an abilities just construct over time, experienced listening is difficult, and enhancing listening an abilities takes concerted effort. Even when listening education is available, civilization do not take on it as conveniently as they do methods to enhance their speaking skills. After ~ teaching interaction courses for several years, I have consistently discovered that students and teachers approach the listening component of the course less enthusiastically than few of the other parts. Hearne is frequently viewed as an annoyance or a chore, or simply ignored or decreased as part of the interaction process. In addition, our individualistic society values speaking an ext than listening, as it’s the speakers who are periodically literally in the spotlight. Although hear competence is a critical part of social interaction and also many of united state value others we perceive to be “good listeners,” listening simply doesn’t get the same kind of praise, attention, instruction, or credibility as speaking. Teachers, parents, and relational partners explicitly convey the prestige of listening with statements prefer “You better listen to me,” “Listen closely,” and also “Listen up,” but these requirements are hardly ever paired v concrete instruction. So uneven you setup on taking more communication courses later (and i hope you do), this chapter may be the only instruction you obtain on the basics of the hearne process, some obstacles to efficient listening, and also how we deserve to increase ours listening competence.

Bad message and/or Speakers

Bad messages and/or speakers likewise present a barrier to effective listening. Occasionally our problem listening originates in the sender. In state of post construction, poorly structured messages or message that are too vague, also jargon filled, or too an easy can existing listening difficulties. In regards to speakers’ delivery, linguistic fillers, monotone voices, distracting movements, or a disheveled appearance can inhibit our capability to cognitively procedure a post (Hargie, 2011). As we will find out in section 5.2.3 “Bad hearne Practices”, speakers have the right to employ specific strategies to produce listenable messages the take some of the load off the listener through tailoring a article to it is in heard and also processed easily. Thing 9 “Preparing a Speech” likewise discusses many strategies for developing messages tailored for dental delivery, consisting of things like preview and also review statements, transitions, and parallel wording. Listening additionally becomes an overwhelming when a speaker tries to current too lot information. Info overload is a common barrier to reliable listening that an excellent speakers can help mitigate by structure redundancy right into their speeches and also providing concrete examples of new information to aid audience members interpret and understand the crucial ideas.


Oscar Wilde said, “Listening is a really dangerous thing. If one listens one may be convinced.” Unfortunately, several of our default means of processing information and perceiving others lead united state to rigid methods of thinking. As soon as we connect in prejudiced listening, we are usually do the efforts to preserve our ways of thinking and avoid being encouraged of miscellaneous different. This kind of prejudice is a obstacle to effective listening, due to the fact that when us prejudge a person based on his or her identity or ideas, we usually stop listening in an active and/or ethical way.

We exhibit prejudice in our listening in several ways, few of which are more obvious than others. Because that example, us may insurance claim to it is in in a hurry and only selectively resolve the components of a message that we agree with or the aren’t controversial. Us can additionally operate native a state the denial whereby we stop a subject or human being altogether so the our views are not challenged. Prejudices the are based upon a who identity, such as race, age, occupation, or appearance, may lead us to assume that we understand what that or she will say, basically closing under the hear process. Keeping an smashville247.net up mind and also engaging in perception check can help us determine prejudiced listening and also hopefully change into more competent hear practices.

Bad hearne Practices

The previously discussed obstacles to effective listening may be daunting to overcome since they room at the very least partially beyond our control. Physical barriers, cognitive limitations, and perceptual biases exist within all of us, and it is more realistic to believe that we have the right to become much more conscious of and also lessen them 보다 it is to think that we can remove them altogether. Other “bad listening” practices might be habitual, however they are simpler to deal with with part concerted effort. These poor listening practices include interrupting, distorted listening, eavesdropping, aggressive listening, narcissistic listening, and pseudo-listening.


Conversations unfold as a collection of turns, and also turn acquisition is negotiated v a facility set of verbal and also nonverbal signal that room consciously and also subconsciously received. In this sense, conversational turn taking has been likened to a dance whereby communicators shot to stop stepping on every other’s toes. One of the most regular glitches in the turn-taking procedure is interruption, but not all disruptions are considered “bad listening.” an interruption could be unintentional if we misread cues and think a human being is excellent speaking just to have actually him or her begin up again in ~ the same time we do. Sometimes disruptions are more like overlapping explanation that display support (e.g., “I think for this reason too.”) or excitement about the conversation (e.g., “That’s therefore cool!”). Back-channel cues prefer “uh-huh,” together we learned earlier, also overlap v a speaker’s message. We may likewise interrupt out of need if we’re engaged in a job with the various other person and need to sell directions (e.g., “Turn left here.”), instructions (e.g., “Will you whisk the eggs?”), or warnings (e.g., “Look out behind you!”). Every these disruptions are not commonly thought the as evidence of negative listening uneven they become distracting because that the speaker or room unnecessary.

Unintentional disruptions can still be considered bad listening if they an outcome from mindless communication. As we’ve currently learned, intended an interpretation is no as important as the meaning that is created in the interaction itself. Therefore if friend interrupt unintentionally, but since you were just half-listening, then the discontinuity is still proof of negative listening. The speaker may kind a an unfavorable impression of you the can’t just be erased by you noting that you didn’t “mean come interrupt.” disruptions can additionally be used as an attempt to dominate a conversation. A person engaging in this type of interruption might lead the other communicator to shot to assert dominance, too, bring about a vain to view who have the right to hold the floor the longest or the most often. An ext than likely, though, the speaker will kind a an adverse impression that the interrupter and also may withdraw from the conversation.

Distorted Listening

Distorted listening occurs in plenty of ways. Occasionally we just obtain the bespeak of information wrong, which deserve to have reasonably little an unfavorable effects if we are casually recounting a story, annoying results if us forget the order of transforms (left, right, left or right, left, right?) in ours driving directions, or very an adverse effects if we recount the events of a crime the end of order, which leader to faulty testimony in ~ a criminal trial. Rationalization is another form of distorted listening with which us adapt, edit, or skew incoming details to fit ours existing schemata. Us may, for example, reattribute the cause of other to better suit our very own beliefs. If a professor is explaining come a student why that earned a “D” ~ above his last paper, the student can reattribute the reason from “I didn’t follow the document guidelines” come “this professor is an unfair grader.” periodically we actually adjust the words us hear to do them far better fit what we are thinking. This can conveniently happen if we sign up with a conversation late, overhear part of a conversation, or room being a lazy listener and miss essential setup and also context. Passing along distorted information have the right to lead to negative consequences varying from beginning a false rumor about someone come passing along incorrect clinical instructions native one health-care provider come the following (Hargie, 2011). Last, the addition of material to a post is a type of distorted hearne that actually goes versus our common pattern that listening, which requires reducing the amount of information and also losing some definition as we take the in. The an allegory of “weaving a high tale” is related to the practice of distorting with addition, as inaccurate or fabricated information is added to what was actually heard. Addition of product is likewise a typical feature of gossip. Fantastic example of the result of distorted listening is noted by the personality Anthony Crispino ~ above Saturday Night Live, that passes follow me distorted news top top the “Weekend Update” segment. In previous episodes, the has listed that Lebron James turned under the Cleveland Show to be on Miami Vice (instead that left the Cleveland Cavaliers come play basketball because that the Miami Heat) and also that chairman Obama to plan on repealing the “Bush haircuts” (instead the the bush tax cuts).


Eavesdropping is a poor listening practice that requires a calculated and also planned attempt to covertly listen come a conversation. Over there is a difference between eavesdropping on and overhearing a conversation. Plenty of if not most of the interaction we have actually throughout the day occur in the presence of other people. However, provided that our perceptual fields are usually concentrated on the interaction, we are regularly unaware that the other people approximately us or don’t think around the truth that they can be listening in on ours conversation. We usually only become mindful of the truth that other civilization could it is in listening in once we’re stating something private.


Eavesdropping entails intentionally hear in top top a conversation the you space not a part of.

People eavesdrop because that a range of reasons. World might think another person is talking about them behind their ago or the someone is engaged in illegal or unethical behavior. Sometimes world eavesdrop to feeding the gossip mill or out of curiosity (McCornack, 2007). In any type of case, this form of hearne is considered negative because it is a violation of people’s privacy. After-effects for eavesdropping may incorporate an angry reaction if caught, damage to interpersonal relationships, or being regarded as dishonest and also sneaky. Additionally, eavesdropping might lead world to uncover out info that is personally upsetting or hurtful, particularly if the suggest of the eavesdropping is to uncover out what human being are saying behind their back.

Aggressive Listening

Aggressive hearne is a poor listening practice in which people pay fist in order to strike something the a speaker claims (McCornack, 2007). Wild listeners prefer to ambush speaker in order come critique your ideas, personality, or various other characteristics. Such habits often results from built-up frustration in ~ an interpersonal relationship. Unfortunately, the an ext two people know each other, the far better they will certainly be at aggressive listening. Take it the complying with exchange between long-term partners:

Deb: I’ve to be thinking about making a salsa garden beside the next porch. I think it would certainly be really good to be able to go pick our very own tomatoes and peppers and also cilantro to make homemade salsa.

Summer: Really? when are girlfriend thinking around doing it?

Deb: next weekend. Would certainly you choose to help?

Summer: ns won’t hold my breath. Every time friend come up v some “idea of the week” you get so excited about it. However do you ever follow v with it? No. Fine be eating salsa native the store following year, similar to we are now.

Although Summer’s initial an answer to Deb’s idea is watch appropriate and also positive, she asks the question since she has currently planned her upcoming aggressive response. Summer’s aggression towards Deb isn’t about a salsa garden; it’s about a structure frustration v what Summer perceives together Deb’s absence of follow-through on her ideas. Aside from engaging in aggressive listening since of built-up frustration, such listeners may also attack others’ ideas or mock your feelings since of their own low self-esteem and insecurities.

Narcissistic Listening

Narcissistic listening is a type of self-centered and also self-absorbed listening in which listeners try to make the interaction around them (McCornack, 2007). Narcissistic listener redirect the focus of the conversation come them by interrupting or changing the topic. Once the emphasis is taken turn off them, narcissistic listeners might give negative feedback by pouting, providing an adverse criticism that the speak or topic, or skip the speaker. A typical sign the narcissistic listening is the combination of a “pivot,” as soon as listeners shift the emphasis of attention ago to them, and “one-upping,” when listeners try to optimal what vault speakers have actually said during the interaction. You have the right to see this narcissistic combination in the complying with interaction:

Bryce: my boss has actually been really unfair come me lately and also hasn’t to be letting me work about my class schedule. I think i may need to quit, yet I don’t know where okay find another job.

Toby: Why space you complaining? I’ve been working with the exact same stupid ceo for 2 years. He doesn’t even treatment that i’m trying to gain my degree and work in ~ the same time. And you have to hear the means he talks to me in prior of the various other employees.

Narcissistic listeners, provided their self-centeredness, might actually fool themselves right into thinking that they room listening and proactively contributing come a conversation. We all have actually the advice to re-publishing our own stories throughout interactions, since other people’s communication triggers our very own memories around related experiences. The is generally much more competent come withhold sharing our stories until the other person has been able to speak and we have offered the ideal support and also response. However we all shift the emphasis of a conversation back to us occasionally, either because we don’t recognize another way to respond or because we are making an effort at empathy. Narcissistic listeners continuously interrupt or follow one more speaker through statements prefer “That reminds me the the time…,” “Well, if ns were you…,” and “That’s nothing…” (Nichols, 1995) as we’ll learn later, matching stories isn’t thought about empathetic listening, however occasionally doing that doesn’t make you a narcissistic listener.


Do you have actually a friend or family member who repeats stories? If so, climate you’ve probably engaged in pseudo-listening as a politeness strategy. Pseudo-listening is behaving together if you paying fist to a speaker when you’re actually no (McCornack, 2007). Outwardly visible signals that attentiveness are critical part that the hear process, yet when lock are just an “act,” the pseudo-listener is engaging in negative listening behaviors. She or he is no actually going with the stages of the listening procedure and will likely not be able to recall the speaker’s blog post or offer a competent and relevant response. Although the is a negative listening practice, us all understandably engage in pseudo-listening from time to time. If a friend requirements someone to talk however you’re really worn down or enduring some other barrier to reliable listening, it might be worth engaging in pseudo-listening together a relational maintain strategy, especially if the friend simply needs a sound board and also isn’t expecting advice or guidance. We may likewise pseudo-listen come a romantic partner or grandfather’s story because that the fifteenth time to prevent hurting your feelings. We need to avoid pseudo-listening when feasible and should certainly avoid making it a hear habit. Although we may get away v it in some situations, each time we danger being “found out,” which can have an adverse relational consequences.

Key Takeaways

Environmental and physical obstacles to effective listening incorporate furniture placement, eco-friendly noise such as sounds of traffic or world talking, physiological noise such as a sinus headache or hunger, and psychological noise such as stress or anger.Cognitive obstacles to effective listening incorporate the difference between speech and also thought rate that enables us “extra room” to think about other things while someone is talking and also limitations in our capability or willingness to concentration or salary attention. An individual barriers to reliable listening incorporate a absence of hearne preparation, poorly structured and/or poorly yielded messages, and also prejudice.

There are several negative listening techniques that we must avoid, as they do not facilitate efficient listening:

Interruptions that room unintentional or serve crucial or helpful purpose are not considered poor listening. Once interrupting becomes a habit or is provided in an effort to overcome a conversation, then it is a obstacle to efficient listening.Distorted hear occurs as soon as we erroneously recall information, skew details to fit our expectations or present schemata, or include material to embellish or adjust information.Eavesdropping is a planned attempt to secretly listen to a conversation, i beg your pardon is a violation that the speakers’ privacy.Aggressive listening is a negative listening practice in which human being pay fist to a speaker in bespeak to assault something castle say.Narcissistic listening is self-centered and self-absorbed hearne in i m sorry listeners shot to make the interaction around them by interrupting, transforming the subject, or drawing attention away from others.Pseudo-listening is “fake listening,” in that civilization behave like they room paying attention and also listening once they actually room not.


We are capable of thinking much faster than the speed at which the average human speaks, which enables us part room come put mental faculties toward things various other than listening. What commonly makes your mind wander?Bad speakers and messages are a common barrier to efficient listening. Explain a time recently when your ability to listen was impaired by the bad delivery and/or content of an additional person.Of the bad listening practices listed, which carry out you usage the most? Why execute you think you usage this one an ext than the others? What can you perform to assist prevent or diminish this barrier?


Andersen, P. A., Nonverbal Communication: Forms and Functions (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 1999), 57–58.

Bardhi, F., Andres J. Rohm, and Fareena Sultan, “Tuning in and Tuning out: Media Multitasking amongst Young Consumers,” Journal of consumer Behaviour 9 (2010): 318.

Brownell, J., “Listening Environment: A Perspective,” in Perspectives top top Listening, eds. Andrew D. Wolvin and also Carolyn Gwynn Coakley (Norwood, NJ: Alex posting Corporation, 1993), 245.

Fried, C. B., “In-Class Laptop Use and Its impacts on college student Learning,” Computers and Education 50 (2008): 906–14.

Hargie, O., Skilled Interpersonal Interaction: Research, Theory, and Practice (London: Routledge, 2011), 200.

McCornack, S., Reflect and also Relate: An development to Interpersonal Communication (Boston, MA: Bedford/St Martin’s, 2007), 208.

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Nichols, M. P., The shed Art of Listening (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1995), 68–72.