Describe numerous different species of thermometersConvert temperatures between the Celsius, Fahrenheit, and also Kelvin scales

Any physical property that counts consistently and reproducibly on temperature deserve to be provided as the communication of a thermometer. For example, volume increases with temperature for most substances. This building is the basis because that the usual alcohol thermometer and the original mercury thermometers. Other properties used to measure temperature include electric resistance, color, and also the emission of infrared radiation ((Figure)).

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Because many physical properties depend on temperature, the variety of thermometers is remarkable. (a) In this common kind of thermometer, the alcohol, containing a red dye, expands more rapidly than the glass encasing it. When the thermometer’s temperature increases, the liquid from the bulb is compelled into the small tube, creating a large change in the size of the column for a little change in temperature. (b) every of the six squares on this plastic (liquid crystal) thermometer includes a movie of a different heat-sensitive liquid decision material. Listed below
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and also the boiling point is
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Fahrenheit to Celsius
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Celsius come Kelvin
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Kelvin to Celsius
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Fahrenheit come Kelvin
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Kelvin come Fahrenheit
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To convert between Fahrenheit and Kelvin, convert to Celsius together an intermediary step.


Converting between Temperature Scales: Room Temperature “Room temperature” is generally characterized in physics to be

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. (a) What is room temperature in ? (b) What is the in K?

Strategy to answer these questions, all we have to do is select the correct conversion equations and also substitute the known values.

Solution To transform from

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to , use the equation


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Substitute the known value right into the equation and solve:


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Similarly, we discover that

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The Kelvin scale is component of the SI system of units, for this reason its actual an interpretation is more complicated than the one offered above. First, the is not characterized in terms of the freezing and boiling clues of water, however in regards to the triple point. The triple suggest is the unique mix of temperature and pressure in ~ which ice, fluid water, and water vapor can coexist stably. As will certainly be debated in the section on phase changes, the coexistence is completed by lowering the pressure and consequently the boiling allude to reach the freezing point. The triple-point temperature is identified as 273.16 K. This an interpretation has the advantage that return the freeze temperature and boiling temperature the water rely on pressure, there is just one triple-point temperature.

Second, even with 2 points top top the range defined, various thermometers provide somewhat various results for various other temperatures. Therefore, a traditional thermometer is required. Metrologists (experts in the science of measurement) have actually chosen the constant-volume gas thermometer for this purpose. A vessel of consistent volume filled with gas is subjected to temperature changes, and also the measure temperature is proportional come the readjust in pressure. Utilizing “TP” to stand for the triple point,


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The results depend somewhat on the an option of gas, however the less thick the gas in the bulb, the far better the outcomes for various gases agree. If the outcomes are extrapolated to zero density, the outcomes agree rather well, v zero pressure corresponding to a temperature of pure zero.

Constant-volume gas thermometers are huge and pertained to equilibrium slowly, so they room used largely as criter to calibrate various other thermometers.


Visit this site to learn more about the constant-volume gas thermometer.

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Summary

Three types of thermometers space alcohol, liquid crystal, and also infrared radiation (pyrometer).The three main temperature scales room Celsius, Fahrenheit, and Kelvin. Temperatures have the right to be converted from one scale to another using temperature conversion equations.The three phases that water (ice, liquid water, and water vapor) deserve to coexist in ~ a single pressure and also temperature well-known as the triple point.

Conceptual Questions


If a thermometer is allowed to concerned equilibrium through the air, and also a glass the water is no in equilibrium v the air, what will occur to the thermometer reading once it is placed in the water?