Cultural change is a concept that denotes some internal and external factors leading to change in the cultural pattern of societies.
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It can be material as well as non-material in nature. Cultural change may come from many sources but most of them comes through contact with other culture, inventions and internal adjustment of culture.Factors of Cultural Change:
There are three main factors of cultural change:
The contact between two societies will obviously change the culture of both the societies through the process of “cultural diffusion” and “acculturation”.
(ii) Technology Evolution:
Any technological evolution in the country will bring a change their culture also. For example, changes in production technology, changes in the means of communication, changes in the means of transportation, etc.
(iii) The geographical and ecological factor:
The geographical and ecological factor is a natural or a physical factor. The climate or rainfall, attitude of the place, closeness to the sea decides the culture and lifestyle of the people. Any change in the physical features will automatically lead to a change in their culture, habits and way of living.Causes of Cultural Changes:
David Dressier and Donald Carns have made the following observations with regard to the causes of cultural changes:
1. Sometimes members of a society are often confronted by customs that differ from those which they have learnt to accept. In such a situation they adopt some of the new customs, reject others, and follow modified versions of still others. This might be called cultural eclecticism.
2. New customs and practices are likely to be more readily adopted under two conditions
(i) If they represent what is viewed as socially desirable and useful and
(ii) If they do not clash with re-existed and still valued customs and practices.
3. Changes in culture are always super imposed on existing culture especially during cultural contact.
4. All the cultural changes are not equally important. Some changes are introduced to culture because they are considered necessary for human survival. Some other changes are accepted in order to satisfy socially acquired needs not essential for survival.
5. It is a fact of common observation that crisis tends to produce or accelerate cultural changes. If the changes are accepted once due to the crisis, they tend to persist. For example, women were included in military during the Second World War, and even now they continue to be there.
6. Cultural change is cumulative in its total effect. Much is added and little is lost. It’s growth is like the growth of a tree that ever expands but only loses it leaves, Sometimes its limbs from time to time, as long as it survives.
7. Cultural change leads to chain reaction, whenever a change is incorporated into the culture and becomes defined as a ‘social necessity’, new needs emerge, generating the desire for still further changes to complement or supplement the original change.
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