I cannot recognize the calculation "66 ⊕ fa = 9c". The sum is clearly over "ff", so ns am confused. The subject is simple encryption algorithm.

You are watching: What does a plus sign inside a circle mean

What does a circled to add mean?


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People space saying the the price doesn"t average addition. This is true, but doesn"t explain why a plus-like prize is supplied for something that isn"t addition.

The answer is that for modulo addition of 1-bit values, 0+0 == 1+1 == 0, and also 0+1 == 1+0 == 1. Those are the very same values together XOR.

So, to add in a circle in this context way "bitwise enhancement modulo-2". Which is, together everyone says, XOR for integers. It"s usual in mathematics to use plus in a circle because that an procedure which is a kind of addition, however isn"t regular integer addition.


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It"s not an addition, however an exclusive OR operation. At least the output confirms to the same.

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That"s the XOR operator, not the plus operator

XOR works little bit by bit, without carrying over choose PLUS does

1 XOR 1 = 01 XOR 0 = 10 XOR 0 = 00 XOR 1 = 1
Hope this layout works, take it it come the binary representation with an XOR:

66h = 102 decimal = 01100110 binaryFAh = 250 decimal = 11111010 binary------------------------------------ 10011100 binary XOR rules space basically:1 XOR 1 = 0 false1 XOR 0 = 1 true0 XOR 0 = 0 falsebut the wiki I connected earlier will offer you more details if needed...thats what the looks like they are doing in the screenshot you provided


It"s an exclude, or (XOR). If ns remember correctly, once doing bitwise math the period (.) method AND and the plus (+) way OR. Placing a circle about the plus to typical XOR is continuous with the layout used because that OR.

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I offered the reasonable in the replies through rampion and schnaader. I will summarise just how I evidenced the results. I adjusted the numbers to binary and also then supplied the XOR-operation. Alternatively, you have the right to use the Hexadecimal tables: Click here!


It is XOR. Another name because that the XOR function is addition without carry. I expect that"s exactly how the symbol could make sense.


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