explain the basic molecular structure of carbohydrates, and identify your monomers and polymers; perform the three subtypes of carbohydrates, and also describe their structure and also function.

You are watching: What elements make up a carbohydrate


Carbohydrates (carbo- = “carbon”; hydrate = “water”) contain the aspects carbon, hydrogen, and also oxygen, and also only those elements with a couple of exceptions. The ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen in carbohydrate molecule is 1:2:1. The component carbon (C, carbo-) and also the ingredient water (H20, -hydrate) offer the name to this team of necessary molecules.

Carbohydrates room classified into three subtypes: monosaccharides, (mono- = ”one”, “alone”; saccharide = “sugar, sweet”) disaccharides (di = “two”), and also polysaccharides. (poly- = “many, much”). Monosaccharides and disaccharides are likewise called simple carbohydrates, and are typically referred to as sugars. An easy carbohydrates are small polar molecules, containing numerous –OH practical groups, which makes them hydrophilic (they dissolve well in water). Polysaccharides, also called complex carbohydrates, are large non polar molecules, and they space not hydrophilic.

The figure listed below shows the most typical monosaccharides: glucose, fructose and galactose (six-carbon monosaccharides), and ribose and also deoxyribose (five-carbon monosaccharides). Keep in mind that they are all nasmashville247.net making use of the suffix –ose, which way sugar. Carbohydrates are frequently nasmashville247.net “somethingose”.

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Figure \(\PageIndex1\) this monosaccharides respect the proportion 1:2:1 stated above: glucose (C6H12O6), furustos (C6H12O6), galactose (C6H12O6), ribose (C5H10O5), deoxyribose (C5H10O4, this one is absent an oxygen). Keep in mind that carbohydrates have lots that hydroxyl functional groups (-OH)

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Figure \(\PageIndex2\) there are various ways to represent a glucose molecule (C6H12O6). Two of the most common are straight-chain type (left) and also ring type (right). Carbon atoms in the vertices room not shown.

Disaccharides type by a covalent bond between two monosaccharides. This form of bond between two monosaccharides is referred to as a glycosidic bond, and energy is neededto type it.

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Figure \(\PageIndex3\) The disaccharide sucrose is forsmashville247.net once a monomer that glucose and a monomer that fructose join in a dehydration synthesis reaction to form a glycosidic bond. In the process, a water molecule is lost (not displayed in the figure). The shed water molecule is forsmashville247.net by -OH and -H presented in red. Oxygen develops covalent bonds with glucose top top the left, and fructose top top the right.

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Figure \(\PageIndex4\) The most common disaccharides: sucrose (C12H22O11), lactose (C12H22O11), and maltose (C12H22O11)

Polysaccharides space macromolecules created of repeated units that the same building block, monosaccharides, an in similar way to a pearl necklace is written of plenty of pearls. We can additionally define polysaccharides as polymers assembled from plenty of smaller covalently bonded monomers. As presented in the Figures and also Table below, three crucial polysaccharides in life organisms space glycogen, starch and cellulose. Glycogen and starch are supplied as power stores in animal and also plant cell respectively, while cellulose gives structural assistance in plants and fiber come our diets.

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