Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the transport of one electron native a steel atom to a non-metal atom.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds space formed in between cations and also anions.A cation is created when a metal ion loser a valence electron while an anion is created when a non-metal benefit a valence electron. They both accomplish a an ext stable electronic configuration with this exchange.Ionic solids kind crystalline lattices, or repeating patterns of atoms, with high melting points, and are generally soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: one ionic compound which dissolves in H2O, making the resulting solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The propensity of an atom to entice electrons to itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively charged ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a form of chemical bond in i beg your pardon valence electrons are lost from one atom and gained through another. This exchange results in a much more stable, noble gas digital configuration because that both atoms involved. One ionic shortcut is based upon attractive electrostatic forces between two ion of opposite charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic bonds involve a cation and also an anion. The bond is formed when an atom, commonly a metal, loser an electron or electrons, and becomes a hopeful ion, or cation. One more atom, frequently a non-metal, is may be to obtain the electron(s) to come to be a negative ion, or anion.

One example of one ionic link is the development of sodium fluoride, NaF, indigenous a salt atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loser its solitary valence electron to the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough an are to expropriate it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and are attractive to one an additional due come electrostatic forces.


Formation of NaF: an electron is transferred from Na come F. The result Na+ and F– ions are electrically attractive to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, are crystalline solids under regular conditions, and have high melt points. Most of these solids room soluble in H2O and also conduct electricity when dissolved. The capacity to conduct power in systems is why these substances are dubbed electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a an excellent example that this form of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types an outcome in the stable digital states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons are shared in between the 2 atoms. All ionic bonds have actually some covalent character, however the larger the difference in electronegativity between the 2 atoms, the better the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids kind when cations and also anions space attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure of the bond toughness in an ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and the factors that influence it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice power is characterized as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice energy cannot it is in measured empirically, however it can be calculated utilizing electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main factors that contribute to the magnitude of the lattice energy are the charge and also radius the the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A process which releases warmth into the surroundings.lattice energy: The amount of power released upon development of a crystalline ionic solid from gaseous ions.

Definition of Lattice Energy

Lattice power is an calculation of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. It is identified as the warmth of formation for ion of opposite charge in the gas phase to incorporate into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice energy of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the power released as soon as gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come together to form a lattice of alternating ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign that the power is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be thought of as the power required to separate a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction presented above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, illustrated in purple and also green respectively, alternating in the decision lattice of heavy NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of as the power required to separate a mole of an ionic solid right into the gaseous form of its ion (that is, the reverse of the reaction presented above).

Lattice power cannot be established experimentally due to the an obstacle in isolating gas ions. The energy value can be estimated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it have the right to be calculation theoretically with an electrostatic check of the decision structure.

Factors affect Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the adhering to model because that lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the decision geometry; z+ is the charge number of the cation; z– is the charge number of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a characteristic of the compressibility that the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of totally free space; and r0 is the distance to the closestly ion.

This version emphasizes 2 main components that add to the lattice energy of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and also the radius, or size, the the ions. The result of those factors is:

as the charge of the ions increases, the lattice power increasesas the dimension of the ions increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are also important in predicting the solubility the ionic solids in H2O. Ionic compounds with smaller lattice energies tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe charge on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound have the right to be identified by the lose or acquire of valence electrons vital in stimulate to achieve stable, noble gas electronic configurations.The variety of cations and anions the are combined in an ionic compound is the simplest ratio of whole integers that can be an unified to reach electric neutrality.The cation precedes the anion in both the written kind and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any of the elements of team 18 that the routine table, which room monatomic and, through very limited exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, which occurs when an atom or molecule/compound has no excess or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The simplest whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion written of number of atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic shortcut is developed through the carry of one or much more valence electrons, commonly from a steel to a non-metal, i beg your pardon produces a cation and also an anion that room bound together by an attractive electrostatic force. Top top a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, such as salt chloride (NaCl), kind a crystalline lattice and also are solids at regular temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: salt chloride decision lattice


The fee on the cations and anions is figured out by the variety of electrons compelled to attain stable noble gas electronic configurations. The ionic composition is then identified by the necessity that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to combine magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to acquire an ionic compound, we an initial note the digital configurations of this atoms (valence level in suggested in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In stimulate to attain noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom needs to lose its 2 valence electrons, while the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, requires one added electron to fill its outer shell. Therefore, because that the resulting link to be neutral, two bromine anions must incorporate with one magnesium cation to kind magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any ratio of 2 bromine atom to 1 magnesium atom will satisfy the two needs above, the formula because that ionic link is frequently presented together the empirical formula, or the most basic whole-number ratio of atoms with optimistic integers.

Note the the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written type and in formulas. In the created form, while the cation name is typically the same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is adjusted to –ide, as in the case of salt chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, that is suffix have the right to vary, however is commonly either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of salt phosphate and calcium nitrite, relying on the identity of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and F– integrate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and also Cl– incorporate to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- combine to form FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and also S2- integrate to kind Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- combine to type Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- incorporate to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– integrate to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer of valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared between the constituent atoms, definition all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature that a shortcut is figured out by the loved one electronegativities the the atom involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has a partial ionic character to it, together a an outcome of the distinction in electronegativity in between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure of the tendency of an atom to attract electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial share of electrons in between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical link are typically classified by the bonds in between constituent atoms. There room multiple type of attractive forces, consisting of covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are generally presented as the finish loss or obtain of one or an ext valence electron from a metal to a nonmetal, resulting in cations and also anions the are hosted together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The development of an ionic bond between lithium and fluorine to type LiF.


Example that a polar covalent bond: as soon as a carbon atom creates a bond with fluorine, castle share a pair of electrons. However, since fluorine is much more highly electronegative than carbon, it attracts that common electron pair closer come itself and thus creates an electric dipole. The small letter greek delta written above the atom is provided to indicate the visibility of partial charges. This shortcut is taken into consideration to have characteristics of both covalent and also ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond in between these atom is more facility than this design illustrates. The bond developed between any type of two atoms is no a completely ionic bond. Every bonding interactions have actually some covalent character because the electron density remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a shortcut is figured out by the distinction in electronegativity between the constituent atoms. The bigger the difference, the much more ionic the nature the the bond. In the conventional presentation, bonds are designated together ionic once the ionic aspect is greater than the covalent aspect of the bond. Bond that autumn in in between the two extremes, having both ionic and also covalent character, room classified together polar covalent bonds. Such bonds are thought of as consisting of partially charged positive and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and also covalent character stand for points follow me a continuum, these designations room frequently beneficial in understanding and comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and covalent compounds. Because that example, ionic compounds frequently have greater boiling and melting points, and they are also usually much more soluble in water than covalent compounds.