Sapphic verse

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The evaluation of the metrical trends of a poem by arranging its lines into feet of stressed and also unstressed syllables and showing the major pauses, if any. Scansion also involves the classification of a poem’s stanza, structure, and also rhyme scheme.


A six-line stanza, or the last six lines of a 14-line Italian or Petrarchan sonnet. A sestet refers just to the final portion of a sonnet, otherwise the six-line stanza is recognized as a sexain. The 2nd stanza the Emily Dickinson’s “The Soul has actually Bandaged Moments” is a sexain. “Sestina: Like,” through A.E. Stallings possesses numerous sexains. See also Sestina.

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A complex French city form, usually unrhymed, consist of of six stanzas of 6 lines each and a three-line envoy. The finish words the the first stanza are recurring in a various order as finish words in every of the subsequent five stanzas; the closeup of the door envoy contains all 6 words, 2 per line, put in the middle and at the end of the three lines. The patterns of native repetition room as follows, through each number representing the final word of a line, and also each row of numbers representing a stanza: 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 1 5 2 4 3 3 6 4 1 2 5 5 3 2 6 1 4 4 5 1 3 6 2 2 4 6 5 3 1 (6 2) (1 4) (5 3)See Algernon Charles Swinburne’s “The complaint of Lisa,”John Ashbery’s “Farm Implements and also Rutabagas in a Landscape,” and David Ferry’s “The Guest Ellen in ~ the Supper for Street People.” Browse an ext sestinas.

Shakespearean sonnet

The sport of the sonnet kind that Shakespeare used—comprised of three quatrains and also a finish couplet, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg—is called the English or Shakespeareansonnet form, return others had used it before him. This different sonnet structure enables for an ext space come be specialized to the buildup of a topic or difficulty than the Italian/Petrarchan form, and also is followed by simply two lines to conclude or solve the city in a rhyming couplet. Learn more about sonnet develops here.


A korean verse type related to haiku and tanka and also comprised of 3 lines that 14-16 valuation each, because that a complete of 44-46 syllables. Each line contains a pause near the middle, comparable to a caesura, despite the break need not it is in metrical. The first half the the line has six to nine syllables; the second fifty percent should save no fewer than five. Originally intended together songs, sijo can act romantic, metaphysical, or spirituality themes. Every little thing the subject, the an initial line introduce an idea or story, the 2nd supplies a “turn,” and the 3rd provides closure. Modern-day sijo are sometimes printed in six lines.


A comparison (see Metaphor) made with “as,” “like,” or “than.” In “A Red, Red Rose,” Robert Burns declares: O mine Luve is choose a red, red climbed That’s recently sprung in June; O my Luve is choose the melody That’s sweetly play in tune.“What happens to a dream deferred?” asks Langston Hughes in “Harlem”: does it dry up choose a raisin in the sun? Or fester favor a sore— and then run? Does that stink favor rotten meat? Or crust and also sugar over— like a syrupy sweet?Browse poems with emerged similes.


A vain poetry power in i beg your pardon selected audience members score performers, and also winners are figured out by total points. Slam is a composite genre the combines aspects of poetry, theater, performance, and also storytelling. The genre’s origins have the right to be traced come Chicago in the early 1980s. Because then, groups of volunteers have actually organized slams in venues throughout the world. The very first National poetry Slam was hosted in 1990, and also has become an yearly event in which groups from cities across the united States complete at occasions in a host city. For an ext on city slams, check out Jeremy Richards’s collection “Performing the Academy”. See likewise poets Tyehimba Jess, Bob Holman, and also Patricia Smith.


A soliloquy is a monologue in which a personality in a pat expresses thoughts and also feelings while gift alone ~ above stage. Soliloquies allow dramatists to interact information about a character’s state the mind, hopes, and intentions directly to an audience. Soliloquies became a dramatic convention in the 1590s and also 1600s, when playwrights supplied the method to permit characters come reveal necessary plot points. The opened speech in Christopher Marlowe’sDoctor Faustus is very early example, but the most well known soliloquies in English come from Shakespeare’s dram Hamlet, Macbeth, and Othello.


A 14-line poem with a variable rhyme plan originating in Italy and brought to England by Sir cutting board Wyatt and also Henry Howard, earl the Surrey in the 16th century. Accurate a “little song,” the sonnet traditionally shows upon a single sentiment, with a clear up or “turn” of believed in its concluding lines. Over there are plenty of different varieties of sonnets.The Petrarchan sonnet, perfected by the Italian poet Petrarch, divides the 14 lines into two sections: one eight-line stanza (octave) rhyming ABBAABBA, and a six-line stanza (sestet) rhyming CDCDCD or CDECDE. Man Milton’s “When I take into consideration How my irradiate Is Spent” and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s “How execute I Love Thee” employ this form.The Italian sonnet is one English sport on the classic Petrarchan version. The octave’s rhyme system is preserved, yet the sestet rhymes CDDCEE. View Thomas Wyatt’s “Whoso perform to Hunt, I understand Where Is an Hind” and John Donne’s “If poisonous Minerals, and If the Tree.”Wyatt and also Surrey arisen the English (or Shakespearean) sonnet, which condenses the 14 lines right into one stanza of 3 quatrains and also a break up couplet, v a rhyme scheme of ABABCDCDEFEFGG (though poets have commonly varied this scheme; view Wilfred Owen’s “Anthem for Doomed Youth”). George Herbert’s “Love (II),” Claude McKay’s “America,” and also Molly Peacock’s “Altruism” room English sonnets.These three varieties have offered rise to many variations, including: -The caudate sonnet, which to add codas or tails come the 14-line poem. Watch Gerard Manley Hopkins’s “That Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire.” -The curtal sonnet, a shortened variation devised by Gerard Manley Hopkins that maintains the proportions the the Italian form, substituting two six-stress tercets for two quatrains in the octave (rhyming alphabet ABC), and also four and a fifty percent lines for the sestet (rhyming DEBDE), also six-stress other than for the last three-stress line. Check out his poem “Pied Beauty.” -The sonnet redoublé, likewise known together a crown that sonnets, is written of 15 sonnets that are linked by the repeat of the last line the one sonnet together the initial line of the next, and also the last line of that sonnet as the initial line of the previous; the critical sonnet is composed of every the repeated lines the the previous 14 sonnets, in the very same order in which castle appeared. Marilyn Nelson’s A Wreath because that Emmett Till is a modern example. -A sonnet sequence is a group of sonnets share the very same subject matter and sometimes a dramatic situation and persona. See George Meredith’s Modern Love sequence, sir Philip Sidney’s Astrophel and Stella, Rupert Brooke’s 1914 sequence, and also Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s Sonnets indigenous the Portuguese. -The Spenserian sonnet is a 14-line poem developed by Edmund Spenser in his Amoretti, that varies the English type by interlocking the three quatrains (ABAB BCBC CDCD EE). -The stretched sonnet is extended to 16 or much more lines, such together those in George Meredith’s succession Modern Love. -A submerged sonnet is tucked right into a longer poetic work; check out lines 235-48 that T.S. Eliot’s “The garbage Land.”Browse much more sonnets.You can likewise read the educational essays “Learning the Sonnet”and “The Sonnet as a silver- Marrow Spoon.”

Spenserian stanza

The unit that Edmund Spenser’s long poem The Faerie Queene, consisting of eight iambic-pentameter lines and also a final alexandrine, through a rhyme system of ABABBCBCC. Later uses of this stanza type include man Keats’s “The night of St. Agnes,” Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “Adonais,” and also Alfred lord Tennyson’s “The Lotos-Eaters.”

Spoken indigenous

A wide designation because that poetry intended for performance. Though some talked word poetry may likewise be published on the page, the genre has its root in oral traditions and also performance. Spoken word can encompass or contain elements of rap, hip-hop, storytelling, theater, and jazz, rock, blues, and also folk music. Characterized by rhyme, repetition, improvisation, and word play, spoken word poems commonly refer to problems of social justice, politics, race, and community. Related to slam poetry, talked word may draw on music, sound, dance, or various other kinds of power to attach with audiences. See Murdoch Burnett, Kevin Coval, and Cristin O’Keefe Aptowicz for instances of talked word performers. For talked word’s link with music, see David Browne’s essay “Pop Star Poetics.”


A metrical foot consists of two accented syllables. An example of a spondaic word is “hog-wild.” Gerard Manley Hopkins’s “Pied Beauty” is heavily spondaic: with swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim; he fathers-forth who beauty is previous change: worship him.

Sprung rate

A metrical system devised by Gerard Manley Hopkins composed of one- to four-syllable feet that start with a stressed syllable. The spondee replace instead instead the iamb as a dominant measure, and the number of unstressed valuation varies substantially from line to line (see additionally accentual verse). According to Hopkins, its intended impact was come reflect the dynamic quality and variations of common speech, in comparison to the monotony that iambic pentameter. His very own poetry illustrates that is use; despite there have actually been couple of imitators, the spirit and also principles the sprung rhythm affected the rise of complimentary verse in the at an early stage 20th century.


A grouping of lines separated from rather in a poem. In modern free verse, the stanza, prefer a prose paragraph, have the right to be provided to mark a transition in mood, time, or thought.


A valuation uttered in a higher pitch—or with greater emphasis—than others. The English language itself determines just how English words are stressed, however sentence structure, semantics, and also meter influence the placement and also perception of stress. View alsoaccentual verse, accentual-syllabic verse, foot, meter, rhythm, and scansion.


In Greek drama, the strophe (turning) signified the an initial section the a choral ode, and was recited by the Chorus together it moved across the stage. The Chorus’s movement earlier to its initial side to be accompanied by the antistrophe. Finally, the Chorus stood still to chant the epode, the final section the the ode, which supplied a new metrical structure. This classic structure is clearly foregrounded in Ben Jonson’s “A Pindaric Ode.” Strophe came come be identified with the stanzas in one ode; see Coleridge’s “France: one Ode.” it has additionally been used to define units or verse paragraphs in complimentary verse. Check out Robert Duncan’s, “A Poem beginning with a heat by Pindar” and also Geoffrey Hill’s “On reading Crowds and Powerfor instances of this contemporary usage.


A movement of assumed in the humanities, widespread in anthropology, linguistics, and also literary theory, and also influential in the 1950s and also ’60s. Based mainly on the etymological theories of Ferdinand de Saussure, structuralism thought about language as a mechanism of signs and signification, the facets of which are understandable just in relationship to each other and to the system. In literary theory, structuralism challenged the belief that a occupational of literature reflected a offered reality; instead, a message was constituted of etymological conventions and situated amongst other texts. Structuralist doubters analyzed product by evaluating underlying structures, such as characterization or plot, and attempted to show how these patterns were universal and could thus be used to develop general conclusions about both individual works and also the systems from which lock emerged. The anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss was crucial champion of structuralism, together was roman inn Jakobsen. Northrop Frye’s attempts to categorize Western literary works by archetype had some basis in structuralist thought. Structuralism regarded language together a closed, stable system, and also by the late 1960s it had given means to poststructuralism.


A lofty, ennobling seriousness as the main characteristic of details poetry, as established in the treatise On the Sublime, attributed to the 3rd-century Greek rhetorician Cassius Longinus. The principle took hold in the 18th century amongst English philosophers, critics, and poets who connected it v overwhelming sensation. In A thoughtful Inquiry right into the origin of our concepts of the Sublime and also the Beautiful (1757), Edmund Burke determined the sublime together the experience of the infinite, i m sorry is terrifying and thrilling because it threatens to overpower the regarded importance of human being enterprise in the universe. Aesthetes and also writers that the era witnessed the natural world and also its wild, secret expanses as a gateway come the experience of the sublime. Romantic poets such as Percy Bysshe Shelley and also William Wordsworth were affected by this notion.

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An artistic philosophy that took hold in 1920s Paris and also spread transparent the world in the years that followed. André Breton outlined its intends in his Surrealist declaration (1924), affirming the prominence of the “disinterested play of thought” and the “omnipotence that dreams” rather than reason and logic. Breton and his colleagues were inspired by Freudian psychoanalysis and also its emphasis on the power of unconscious thought. V “automatic writing” and also hypnosis, artists could cost-free their imaginations to expose deeper truths. The French poets Charles Baudelaire, Arthur Rimbaud, Guillaume Apollinaire, and Pierre Reverdy embodied early surrealist principles, as did Peruvian poet César Vallejo. Surrealist techniques were likewise used in the intuitive arts, specifically in the paintings of Max Ernst, Salvador Dali, Joan Miró, and also René Magritte, and also in the films of Jean Cocteau. A 2nd generation of surrealist writers arised in various other parts the the world, especially in Latin America; view the poems of Pablo Neruda and also Octavio Paz. The surrealist aesthetic has actually influenced modern-day and modern-day poets composing in English as well; James Tate, man Ashbery, and Michael Palmer are noteworthy examples.