"The Sun, through all the planets revolving about it, and depending ~ above it, deserve to still ripen a bunch the grapes as though it had actually nothing rather in the world to do." ~ Galileo

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Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) typical Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 days to escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watt magnitude (Vo): -26.8 surface ar Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion years

In the core of the sunlight hydrogen is being converted into helium. This is dubbed nuclear fusion. The takes four hydrogen atoms to fuse into each helium atom. During the process some that the mass is converted right into energy. massive of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU mass of 1 he atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 atom Mass Unit (AMU) equates to 1.67x10-27kgs The difference in between the fixed of 4 H atoms and also 1 he atom is 0.02862 AMU which is only 0.71% that the original mass. This small portion of the fixed is converted right into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) of H space converted come He, only 2.8x10-3 grams that the mass is converted to energy: just how much energy is produced from converting together a tiny amount that mass? We deserve to calculate by making use of Einstein"s famous formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough power to save a 60-watt light pear shining because that over 100 years! The sun has different layers with various properties, this layers space composed of product that is about 75% hydrogen and also 25% helium by mass. Just put, the sun is a great ball the gas, hot enough to light in every tier. In the very innermost component of the Sun, called its core, the temperature is around 15 million Kelvins, the density is 150 times that of water, and also the pressure is over 200 billion times better than atmospheric pressure right here on Earth. This heavy, sweltering ar is whereby the Sun"s power is produced via a process known as thermonuclear fusion. While blend is difficult to mimic top top Earth, the main point of the Sun and also other stars is a perfect setting for it. Here, the temperatures are high enough for hydrogen nuclei come smash with each other and type helium nuclei, releasing tremendous quantities of power in assorted forms. Energy produced in the form of light keeps bouncing around inside the Sun, together though the sunlight were made completely of mirrors. A fragment of light have the right to take more than 30,000 years to with the surface and also escape! power in the type of tiny particles called neutrinos, however, can travel directly out of the Sun and also into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on planet measure the constant wash of this tiny, fast-moving particles. The apparent visual size of the sunlight is -26.8, making that appear about 10 exchange rate (10,000,000,000) times as bright together the next brightest star, Sirius. The pure magnitude that the Sun, the magnitude it would have actually at a distance of 10 parsec or 32.6 irradiate years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we deserve to see through the nude eye, there is only one, alpha Centauri, with a similar absolute size to the Sun. Many of the remainder are intrinsically much brighter. light takes about 500 seconds (8 1/3 minutes) to travel from the sun to the Earth. The average distance come the planet from the facility of the sun is about 149,000,000 km, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance known as an expensive unit (AU). There room over 63,000 AU in 1 light year. 1 AU is around 0.000016 irradiate year. The nearest star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years distant, or around 280,000 AU.

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activity on the solar surface, photo by Brad Snowder.