"The Sun, with all the planets revolving about it, and also depending upon it, deserve to still ripen a bunch of grapes as though it had actually nopoint else in the Universe to perform." ~ Galileo

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Mass: 1.989x1030 kg Radius: 695,000 kilometres (equator) Average Density: 1.410 gm/cm3 Rotation Period: 25 - 36 days Escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watts Magnitude (Vo): -26.8 Surface Temp: 5,780 K (mean) Age: 4.5 billion years

In the core of the Sun hydrogen is being converted right into helium. This is referred to as nuclear fusion. It takes four hydrogen atoms to fuse right into each helium atom. During the process some of the mass is converted right into energy. Mass of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU Mass of 1 He atom: 4.00268 AMU 1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) equates to 1.67x10-27kgs The distinction between the mass of 4 H atoms and also 1 He atom is 0.02862 AMU which is only 0.71% of the original mass. This small fractivity of the mass is converted right into energy. If 4 grams (1/8 ounce) of H are converted to He, only 2.8x10-3 grams of the mass is converted to energy: How much energy is generated from converting such a tiny amount of mass? We deserve to calculate by utilizing Einstein"s well known formula. E = mc2 E = (2.8x10-3 grams) x c2 E = (2.8x10-6 kgs) x (3x108m/sec)2 E = 2.6x1011 joules Enough energy to store a 60-watt light bulb shining for over 100 years! The Sun has various layers through different properties, these layers are composed of material that is about 75% hydrogen and also 25% helium by mass. Simply put, the Sun is an excellent ball of gas, warm enough to glow in eextremely tier. In the incredibly innermost part of the Sun, referred to as its core, the temperature is around 15 million Kelvins, the density is 150 times that of water, and also the press is over 200 billion times higher than atmospheric press below on Earth. This heavy, sweltering place is wbelow the Sun"s energy is developed by means of a process recognized as thermonuclear fusion. While fusion is challenging to mimic on Planet, the core of the Sun and also other stars is a perfect environment for it. Here, the temperatures are high sufficient for hydrogen nuclei to smash together and also develop helium nuclei, releasing incredible amounts of energy in various forms. Energy developed in the form of light keeps bouncing about inside the Sun, as though the Sun were made completely of mirrors. A pwrite-up of light have the right to take even more than 30,000 years to reach the surchallenge and escape! Energy in the create of tiny pshort articles referred to as neutrinos, yet, deserve to take a trip directly out of the Sun and into the Solar System. Neutrino observatories on Planet meacertain the regular wash of these tiny, fast-relocating pwrite-ups. The noticeable visual magnitude of the Sun is -26.8, making it appear around 10 billion (10,000,000,000) times as bideal as the next brightest star, Sirius. The absolute magnitude of the Sun, the magnitude it would certainly have at a distance of 10 parsec or 32.6 light years, is +4.8. Amongst the brightest stars we deserve to check out with the naked eye, there is only one, alpha Centauri, with a similar absolute magnitude to the Sun. Most of the remainder are intrinsically far brighter. Light takes about 500 secs (8 1/3 minutes) to take a trip from the Sun to the Planet. The average distance to the Earth from the center of the Sun is about 149,000,000 kilometres, or 93,000,000 miles; a distance well-known as an huge unit (AU). There are over 63,000 AU in 1 light year. 1 AU is about 0.000016 light year. The nearemainder star, alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light years distant, or around 280,000 AU.

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Activity on the solar surconfront, photo by Brad Snowder.