You are watching: Which best describes longitudinal waves?
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longitudinal wave, tide consisting of a periodic disturbance or vibration the takes ar in the same direction together the development of the wave. A coiled spring the is compressed at one end and then released experiences a tide of compression that travels its length, followed by a stretching; a allude on any kind of coil that the feather will move with the wave and return follow me the very same path, passing through the neutral position and also then reversing its activity again. Sound moving through air additionally compresses and also rarefies the gas in the direction of travel of the sound tide as castle vibrate back and forth. The P (primary) seismic tide are likewise longitudinal. In a longitudinal wave, each fragment of matter vibrates around its normal rest position and along the axis that propagation, and all corpuscle participating in the wave motion behave in the same manner, other than that over there is a progressive readjust in phase (q.v.) the vibration—i.e., each fragment completes its bicycle of reaction in ~ a later time. The linked motions result in the development of alternative regions of compression and also rarefaction in the direction of propagation.
A mechanical design is advantageous in explaining longitudinal waves. In ~ the optimal of the figure, little masses A, B, C, etc. Room joined with each other by coiled springs to stand for a transmitting medium that has actually properties the both inertia and elasticity. Since mass B has inertia, activity of A towards the left (arrow 2) extend the spring it is fastened to and also motion come the best (arrow 1) compresses it. A equivalent motion will be connected to B with the spring, except that there will certainly be a slight lag in phase. Mass B will impart its activity to its companion C, and also so on, the advertise travelling native A to K and also the lag progressively increasing. In ~ the immediate shown, A leads J in phase by 360°; A is beginning its 2nd vibration, whereas J is just start its first.
A transverse depiction of a longitudinal wave is presented at the bottom of the figure. Right here vertical currently are drawn through the rest positions (indicated by a,b,c, etc.), v lengths proportional come the distances that the masses have moved native equilibrium (their amplitudes). Present are attracted upward native the axis as soon as displacement is to the left and also downward once to the right. A smooth curve attracted through the end of the vertical lines offers a transverse curve. This transverse curve mirrors that there is one compression and one rarefaction per cycle, aj gift one wavelength. Frequency would certainly be represented by the variety of complete cycles executed by any of the masses per second.
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