The envelope of gas surrounding the Earth changes from the floor up. Five distinctive layers have actually been determined using...

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thermal attributes (temperature changes),chemical composition,movement, anddensity.

Each of the layers space bounded by "pauses" where the greatest alters in heat characteristics, chemistry composition, movement, and also density occur.

The five straightforward layers that the atmosphere


This is the outermost layer of the atmosphere. It extends native the peak of the thermosphere to 6,200 miles (10,000 km) above the earth. In this layer, atoms and also molecules to escape into room and satellites orbit the earth. In ~ the bottom of the exosphere is the thermopause located roughly 375 mile (600 km) over the earth.


Between around 53 miles (85 km) and also 375 mile (600 km) lies the thermosphere. This layer is well-known as the top atmosphere. If still very thin, the gases the the thermosphere end up being increasingly denser together one descends toward the earth.

As such, just arrive high energy ultraviolet and x-ray radiation native the sun begins to be soaked up by the molecule in this layer and also causes a huge temperature increase.

Because the this absorption, the temperature rises with height. From together low together -184°F (-120°C) at the bottom that this layer, temperatures have the right to reach together high together 3,600°F (2,000°C) close to the top.

However, regardless of the high temperature, this great of the setting would still feel really cold to our skin due to the very thin atmosphere. The high temperature shows the lot of the energy absorbed by the molecules but with so few in this layer, the total number of molecules is not enough to heat our skin.

Take it to the MAX! The Ionosphere


This layer extends from approximately 31 mile (50 km) above the Earth's surface to 53 mile (85 km). The gases, including the oxygen molecules, continue to end up being denser together one descends. Together such, temperatures boost as one descends increasing to around 5°F (-15°C) close to the bottom the this layer.

The gases in the mesosphere are currently thick sufficient to slow-moving down meteors hurtling into the atmosphere, whereby they burn up, leave fiery trails in the night sky. Both the stratosphere (next layer down) and also the mesosphere are taken into consideration the middle atmosphere. The shift boundary which separates the mesosphere from the stratosphere is called the stratopause.


The Stratosphere extends roughly 31 miles (50 km) down to anywhere from 4 come 12 mile (6 to 20 km) over the Earth's surface. This great holds 19 percent the the atmosphere's gases but very tiny water vapor.

In this region the temperature increases with height. Heat is developed in the process of the development of Ozone and this warm is responsible for temperature increases from an median -60°F (-51°C) in ~ tropopause to a best of about 5°F (-15°C) at the top of the stratosphere.

This increase in temperature through height method warmer wait is located over cooler air. This avoids "convection" together there is no increase vertical movement of the gases. Therefore the ar of the bottom that this class is conveniently seen through the 'anvil-shaped' top of cumulonimbus clouds.


Known as the lower atmosphere practically all occurs in this region. The troposphere begins at the Earth's surface and also extends from 4 to 12 miles (6 to 20 km) high.

The height of the troposphere different from the equator come the poles. At the equator it is about 11-12 mile (18-20 km) high, at 50°N and 50°S, 5½ miles and also at the poles simply under four miles high.

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As the thickness of the gases in this great decrease through height, the air i do not care thinner. Therefore, the temperature in the troposphere additionally decreases with elevation in response. As one climbs higher, the temperature drops native an average roughly 62°F (17°C) come -60°F (-51°C) at the tropopause.