25 Describe and also Prepare closeup of the door Entries for a Business

In this chapter, we finish the last steps (steps 8 and also 9) that the accountancy cycle, the closeup of the door process. Girlfriend will an alert that we perform not cover action 10, reversing entries. This is one optional action in the accountancy cycle that you will learn about in future courses. Steps 1 through 4 were extended in assessing and record Transactions and Steps 5 with 7 were covered in The convey Process.

You are watching: Which of the following accounts are considered permanent accounts?


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You space an accountant for a tiny event-planning business. The business has been operating for numerous years but does not have actually the sources for accountancy software. This way you room preparing all measures in the accountancy cycle through hand.

It is the end of the month, and you have completed the post-closing psychological balance. You notification that there is tho a company revenue account balance provided on this attempt balance. Why is it thought about an error to have actually a revenue account on the post-closing psychological balance? just how do you deal with this error?

Introduction come the closeup of the door Entries

Companies are compelled to close their books at the end of each fiscal year so the they can prepare their annual financial statements and tax returns. However, most companies prepare monthly jae won statements and close their publications annually, so they have a clear picture of agency performance throughout the year, and give individuals timely details to do decisions.

Closing entries prepare a company for the next accounting duration by clearing any outstanding balances in particular accounts that have to not transfer over to the following period. Closing, or clearing the balances, means returning the account come a zero balance. Having actually a zero balance in this accounts is important so a company can compare performance throughout periods, particularly with income. It likewise helps the company keep thorough records of account balances affecting maintained earnings. Revenue, expense, and dividend accounts affect retained earnings and also are closed therefore they have the right to accumulate new balances in the next period, i m sorry is an application of the time period assumption.

To additional clarify this concept, balances are closed to guarantee all revenues and also expenses are tape-recorded in the proper duration and then start over the adhering to period. The revenue and also expense accounts need to start at zero every period, since we space measuring just how much revenue is earned and also expenses incurred throughout the period. However, the cash balances, and also the various other balance sheet accounts, are lugged over indigenous the finish of a current duration to the beginning of the next period.

For example, a store has an inventory account balance that $100,000. If the save closed at 11:59 p.m. On January 31, 2019, then the perform balance when it reopened at 12:01 a.m. On February 1, 2019, would still be $100,000. The balance paper accounts, such together inventory, would lug over into the next period, in this case February 2019.

The account that should start with a clean or $0 balance going right into the following accounting period are revenue, income, and also any dividends from January 2019. To identify the revenue (profit or loss) native the month that January, the store requirements to nearby the revenue statement details from January 2019. Zeroing January 2019 would then allow the store to calculation the income (profit or loss) because that the following month (February 2019), rather of merger it into January’s income and thus giving invalid information solely for the month of February.

However, if the firm also want to keep year-to-date info from month to month, a separate set of records could be preserved as the company progresses through the staying months in the year. Because that our purposes, assume that we space closing the publications at the end of each month uneven otherwise noted.

Let’s watch at an additional example to illustrate the point. I think you own a small landscaping business. The is the end of the year, December 31, 2018, and you are reviewing her financials for the entire year. You view that girlfriend earned $120,000 this year in revenue and also had costs for rent, electricity, cable, internet, gas, and food that totaled $70,000.

You additionally review the following information:


The income an introduction account is one intermediary between revenues and expenses, and also the Retained income account. The stores every one of the closing details for revenues and expenses, bring about a “summary” of revenue or loss for the period. The balance in the Income review account equals the net revenue or loss because that the period. This balance is then moved to the Retained earnings account.

Income an introduction is a nondefined account category. This method that that is no an asset, liability, stockholders’ equity, revenue, or price account. The account has actually a zero balance transparent the whole accounting period until the closing entries space prepared. Therefore, it will not show up on any kind of trial balances, including the adjusted trial balance, and also will not show up on any of the financial statements.

You might be asking yourself, “is the Income an overview account even necessary?” can we just close the end revenues and also expenses straight into kept earnings and not have actually this extra short-term account? We might do this, however by having the Income review account, you gain a balance for net revenue a second time. This offers you the balance to compare to the income statement, and allows you to twin check that all income statement accounts space closed and also have exactly amounts. If you placed the revenues and also expenses directly into retained earnings, you will not check out that inspect figure. No matter which means you select to close, the same last balance is in maintained earnings.

Following is a perform of accounts. State whether every account is a long-term or short-lived account.

rent expenseunearned revenueaccumulated depreciation, vehiclecommon stockfees revenuedividendsprepaid insuranceaccounts payable


A, E, and F space temporary; B, C, D, G, and also H room permanent.

Journalizing and Posting closeup of the door Entries

The eighth step in the accountancy cycle is preparing closing entries, which consists of journalizing and also posting the entries come the ledger.

Four entries occur throughout the close up door process. The an initial entry closes revenue account to the Income review account. The 2nd entry closes expense accounts come the Income review account. The 3rd entry closes the Income summary account to maintained Earnings. The 4th entry closes the dividends account to kept Earnings. The information needed come prepare closing entries comes from the adjusted trial balance.

Let’s explore each entry in more detail using Printing Plus’s info from examining and record Transactions and The Adjustment process as our example. The print Plus changed trial balance because that January 31, 2019, is gift in (Figure).


The T-accounts ~ this closeup of the door entry would certainly look choose the following.


The T-accounts after ~ this closing entry would look prefer the following.


Why space these two numbers the same? The earnings statement summarizes your income, as does earnings summary. If both summary your revenue in the very same period, climate they need to be equal. If they execute not match, then you have actually an error.

The third entry requires Income summary to close come the Retained revenue account. To acquire a zero balance in the Income an overview account, there are guidelines come consider.

If the balance in Income an overview before closeup of the door is a credit transaction balance, you will certainly debit Income an overview and credit Retained revenue in the close up door entry. This situation occurs once a firm has a net income.If the balance in Income review before close up door is a debit balance, you will certainly credit Income an overview and debit Retained revenue in the closeup of the door entry. This instance occurs when a firm has a network loss.

Remember the net income will boost retained earnings, and a network loss will decrease retained earnings. The Retained revenue account boosts on the credit side and also decreases ~ above the debit side.

Printing Plus has actually a $4,665 credit balance in that Income an overview account before closing, so it will debit Income summary and credit kept Earnings.


Notice the the Income an overview account is now zero and is all set for usage in the following period. The Retained earnings account balance is currently a credit transaction of $4,665.

The 4th entry requires Dividends to close to the Retained revenue account. Remember native your past studies the dividends are not expenses, such as salaries paid to your employees or staff. Instead, declaring and also paying dividends is a an approach utilized through corporations come return component of the profits produced by the agency to the owners of the company—in this case, that shareholders.

If dividends were no declared, closing entries would certainly cease in ~ this point. If dividends are declared, to gain a zero balance in the dividends account, the entry will show a credit to Dividends and a debit to kept Earnings. Together you will learn in copy, group Accounting, there are three materials to the declaration and payment of dividends. The first part is the day of declaration, which creates the responsibility or legal responsibility to pay the dividend. The second part is the date of document that determines who receives the dividends, and also the third part is the date of payment, which is the date that payments room made. Print Plus has $100 of dividends v a debit balance top top the adjusted trial balance. The close up door entry will credit Dividends and also debit retained Earnings.


Why to be income an introduction not supplied in the dividends closing entry? Dividends are not an income statement account. Only earnings statement accounts aid us summary income, so only earnings statement accounts should enter income summary.

Remember, dividends are a contra stockholders’ same account. That is contra to preserved earnings. If us pay the end dividends, it method retained revenue decreases. Retained earnings decreases on the debit side. The remaining balance in Retained revenue is $4,565 ((Figure)). This is the very same figure discovered on the declare of preserved earnings.


The explain of retained revenue shows the period-ending retained income after the closeup of the door entries have actually been posted. When you compare the retained earnings ledger (T-account) come the statement of retained earnings, the figures must match. That is important to understand retained earnings is not closeup of the door out, that is only updated. Retained earnings is the only account that shows up in the closeup of the door entries that does no close. You should recall from your previous material that retained earnings are the income retained by the company over time—not cash flow yet earnings. Currently that we have closed the short-lived accounts, let’s testimonial what the post-closing ledger (T-accounts) looks favor for to press Plus.

T-Account Summary

The T-account summary for Printing to add after closing entries are journalized is gift in (Figure).

Notice the revenues, expenses, dividends, and income an introduction all have zero balances. Retained income maintains a $4,565 credit transaction balance. The post-closing T-accounts will be transferred to the post-closing trial balance, i m sorry is action 9 in the audit cycle.

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A company has revenue of $48,000 and total prices of $52,000. What would the 3rd closing entry be? Why?

Key Concepts and also Summary

Closing entries: closing entries prepare a agency for the next period and zero the end balance in temporary accounts.Purpose of closing entries: closeup of the door entries room necessary due to the fact that they help a agency review income accumulation during a period, and verify data figures uncovered on the readjusted trial balance.Permanent accounts: irreversible accounts execute not close and also are accounts that move balances come the following period. They include balance sheet accounts, such as assets, liabilities, and also stockholder’s equityTemporary accounts: short-lived accounts space closed at the end of every accounting period and include income statement, dividends, and also income review accounts.Income Summary: The Income an overview account is an intermediary between revenues and also expenses, and also the Retained revenue account. That stores all the closing details for revenues and expenses, resulting in a “summary” of revenue or loss for the period.Recording closing entries: there are 4 closing entries; closing revenues to revenue summary, closing expenses to earnings summary, closeup of the door income summary to preserved earnings, and also close dividend to maintained earnings.Posting closing entries: once all closing entries space complete, the information is moved to the general ledger T-accounts. Balances in temporary accounts will show a zero balance.