Key Concepts

Adding power (heating) atoms and molecules rises their motion, result in boost in temperature.Removing power (cooling) atoms and also molecules decreases your motion, resulting in a diminish in temperature. Power can be added or eliminated from a substance through a procedure called conduction.In conduction, faster-moving molecules contact slower-moving molecules and transfer power to them. During conduction the slower-moving molecules speed up and also the faster-moving molecules sluggish down. Temperature is a measure up of the mean kinetic power of the atom or molecule of a substance.Heat is the transport of power from a problem at a greater temperature to a substance at a reduced temperature. Some products are much better conductors of warm than others.

You are watching: Which of these would increase the temperature of a substance?


Students will perform an task in which warm is transferred from warm water to metal washers and then from hot metal washers come water. Students will watch a molecular computer animation to better understand the process of conduction in ~ the molecule level. Student will also draw your own version of the process of conduction.


Students will be able to describe and draw a model, top top the molecular level, showing how energy is transferred from one substance to one more through conduction.


Download the student task sheet, and distribute one every student once specified in the activity. The task sheet will serve together the “Evaluate” ingredient of every 5-E class plan.


Make certain you and also your student wear effectively fitting goggles.

Materials for Each Group

2 set of large metal washers top top a stringStyrofoam cup to fill with hot waterRoom-temperature water2 thermometersGraduated cylinder or beaker

Materials for the Teacher

1 Styrofoam cupThermometerHot bowl or coffee makerLarge maker or coffee pot

Note: power can additionally be transferred with radiation and also convection, but this thing only encounters heat transfer with conduction.


Have students explore what happens as soon as room-temperature metal is put in warm water.

If girlfriend cannot acquire the products for all teams to do this activity, you have the right to do the task as a demonstrate or present students the videos heating Washers and also Cooling Washers.

Question come investigate

Why walk the temperature of an object adjust when it is put in warm water?

Materials because that each group

2 set of big metal washers top top a stringStyrofoam cup filled with hot waterRoom-temperature water2 thermometersGraduated cylinder or beaker

Materials for the teacher

1 Styrofoam cupThermometerHot bowl or coffee makerLarge beaker or coffee pot

Teacher preparation

Use a string to tie 5 or 6 steel washers with each other as shown. Each group of college student will need two to adjust of washers, every tied with a string.
Hang one set of washers for each team in hot water ~ above a warm plate or in water in a coffee device so that the washers can acquire hot. This washers will need to remain hot until the second half of the activity. The other set should it is in left in ~ room-temperature and also may be spread to students along with the products for the activity.Immediately prior to the activity, pour about 30 milliliters (2 tablespoons) of hot water (about 50 °C) right into a Styrofoam cup because that each group. Be certain to to water one cup of hot water because that you to use as a control.

Tell students the they room going to watch if the temperature of warm water alters as a result of put room-temperature steel washers in the water. The only way to tell if the washers reason the temperature to change is to have actually a cup of warm water without washers. Explain that friend will have actually this cup of hot water, which will be the control.

You will need to place your thermometer in the cup of hot water at the same time the students do. Have students record the early temperature of the control in their charts top top the activity sheet, along with the initial temperature the their very own cup of warm water. The temperature the the 2 samples have to be around the same.


Place a thermometer in your cup to measure the early temperature that the water. Document the temperature the the water in the “Before” pillar in the graph on the activity sheet. Be certain to also record the early stage temperature the the water in the regulate cup.

Use one more thermometer to measure up the temperature the the washers. Record this in the “Before” column.


Note: the is a little awkward to take it the temperature that the washers with a continuous thermometer since there is such a little point the contact between the pear of the thermometer and also the surface ar of the washers. The washers must be about room-temperature.

Ask college student to do a prediction:

What will take place to the temperature that the water and the washers if you place the washers into the warm water?

With the thermometer still in the water, hold the string and also lower the steel washers every the means into the hot water.

Observe any readjust in the temperature the the water. Leaving the washers in the water until the temperature stops changing. Document the temperature the the water in every cup in the “After” column.Table 1. Temperature readings for room temperature washers put in warm waterTemperature of …BeforeAfterWater in your cupWater in the control cupMetal washers
Remove the washers from the water. Climate take and record the temperature of the washers in the “After” column.

Have students discover what wake up when warm metal is placed in room-temperature water.

Ask students:

How perform you think the temperature will readjust if friend place hot washers into room-temperature water?

Pour about 30 milliliters of room-temperature water into the regulate cup. Place a thermometer in the cup and also tell college student the temperature the the water.

Pour around 30 milliliters that room-temperature water into your Styrofoam cup.With the thermometer tho in the water, hold the string and lower the warm metal washers every the means into the water. Watch any adjust in the temperature the the water. Leave the washers in the water till the temperature stop changing. Document the temperature the the water in her cup in the “After” shaft in the graph below. Also record the temperature of the water in the manage cup.Remove the washers indigenous the water. Take and also record the temperature of the washers.Table 2. Temperature readings for warm washers put in room-temperature waterTemperature of …BeforeAfterWater in your cupWater in the control cupMetal washers

Expected results

The temperature that the water increases and also the temperature that the washers decreases.

Discuss college student observations and what may have actually caused the temperature of the steel washers and water to change.

Ask students:

How go the temperature of the washers and also water adjust in both parts of the activity?Based on your data, students should realize that the temperature the both the washers and also water changed.Knowing what you do around heating and cooling atoms and molecules, why execute you think the temperature changed?If necessary, guide students’ thinking about why the temperature of each changed by questioning them i m sorry were more than likely moving faster, the atoms in the metal washers or the molecules in the water. Phone call students the the molecule model animation you will display next will present them why the temperature of both changed.

Discuss the connection in between molecular motion, temperature, and conduction.

Ask students:

How go the motion of the atoms or molecules of a substance impact the temperature of the substance? If the atoms or molecules of a problem are relocating faster, the substance has a greater temperature. If its atoms or molecules are relocating slower, climate it has actually a lower temperature.What is conduction?Conduction occurs once two substances at various temperatures space in contact. Power is always transferred native the substance through the greater temperature come the one at reduced temperature. As energy is moved from the hotter substance to the colder one, the chillier substance gets warmer and the name is substance gets cooler. Ultimately the two substances end up being the same temperature.

Students often tend to recognize heating yet often have actually a misconception about how things room cooled. As with heating a substance, cooling a substance additionally works through conduction. However instead of concentrating on the slower-moving molecule speeding up, you focus on the faster-moving molecule slowing down. The faster-moving atom or molecule of the name is substance contact slower-moving atoms or molecule of the cooler substance. The faster-moving atoms and also molecules transfer few of their energy to the slower-moving atoms and also molecules. The atoms and also molecules that the hotter substance slow-moving down, and its temperature decreases. An object or substance can’t get chillier by adding “coldness” come it. Something can only get cooler by having its atoms and also molecules carry their power to something the is colder.

Show a simulation to show that temperature is the median kinetic energy of atoms or molecules.

The complying with simulation shows that at any type of temperature, the atom or molecules of a substance are moving at a range of speeds. Part molecules space moving much faster than others, some slower, yet most room in-between.

Note: After pressing "Start", the simulation works finest if girlfriend cycle through all the buttons before using it because that instruction through students..

Show the simulation Temperature.

After cycling v the "Cold", "Medium", and "Hot" buttons, pick "Medium" to start the discussion with students. Phone call students the this simulation reflects the relationship between energy, molecular motion, and also temperature.

Tell students that anything that has actually mass and also is moving, no issue how large or small, has actually a particular amount that energy, dubbed kinetic energy. The temperature the a substance offers you information around the kinetic power of its molecules. The quicker the molecules of a substance move, the higher the kinetic energy, and the greater the temperature. The slow the molecules move, the reduced the kinetic energy, and also the lower the temperature. Yet at any kind of temperature, the molecule don't all relocate at the very same speed so temperature is actually a measure up of the median kinetic energy of the molecule of a substance.

These ideas apply to solids, liquids, and also gases. The little balls in the simulation stand for molecules and change color to aid visualize your speed and kinetic energy. The sluggish ones room blue, the much faster ones space purple or pink, and also the fastest are red. Explain additionally that separation, personal, instance molecules change speed based on their collisions with other molecules. Molecules deliver their kinetic power to other molecules through conduction. As soon as a fast-moving molecule hits a slower-moving molecule, the slow molecule accelerates (and turns more red) and the much faster molecule slows down (and turns an ext blue).Explain the at any type of temperature, many of the molecules are moving at about the same speed and also have around the very same kinetic energy, but there are always some the are moving slower and some that are moving faster. The temperature is actually a combination, or average, the the kinetic power of the molecules. If you could place a thermometer in this simulation, it would certainly be to win by molecules going at various speeds for this reason it would certainly register the mean kinetic power of the molecules.

To add energy, start with "Cold" and then press "Medium" and then "Hot".

Ask students:

What perform you notification about the molecules as energy is added?As power is added, an ext molecules are relocating faster. Over there are an ext pink and also red molecules but there space still some slower-moving blue ones.

To remove energy, start with "Hot" and then push "Medium" and also then "Cold".

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Ask students:

What do you notification about the molecules as energy is removed?As power is removed, more molecules are relocating slower. Over there are more purple and also blue molecules, yet a few still change to pink.