The backcountry frontier of colonial Virginia got to westward native the Blue Ridge mountains to the farthest level of Virginia settlement in the eighteenth century. By imperial charter, the extreme western borders of Virginia currently extended come the Pacific Ocean, however the state “backcountry” or “back settlements” specifically refer to new settlements in the east Appalachian Mountains—most notably in the Shenandoah Valley—that started taking shape in the 1720s. This ax was frequently used in the early american era, once “frontier” referred an ext specifically to nationwide boundaries. In the 1720s and 1730s, British and also colonial authorities motivated settlement that the backcountry, particularly by non-English Protestant immigrant whose small-farm, non-slave communities might develop a buffer against Indian attacks and also French development while deterring runaway servants seeking to create independent nests in the Appalachians. Due to its social, economic, political, and social distinctiveness, the backcountry frontier as a region played a far-reaching role in the eighteenth-century background of Virginia and in the writings of historians about the influence of Virginia’s colonial duration on the later history of the state and also the nation. Through the end of the eighteenth century, the backcountry had become a successful version for the advancement of mixed-farm, market-town negotiations on brand-new frontiers as Americans overspread the trans-Appalachian west.

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Background

Although the an ar west of the Blue Ridge Mountains had been occupied by American Indians because that millennia before European contact and was fully incorporated right into indigenous principles of territorial organization, that did not harbor a huge Indian populace when early american interests in the area an initial developed in the 1720s. In a series of conflicts over trade and natural sources that consumed lot of the latter half of the ten century, the 5 Nations that the Iroquois League had driven most indigenous peoples the end of the top Ohio and also Potomac flow valleys by 1700. In 1701, as the an outcome of treaties v British and also French early american authorities (the so-called grand Agreement), the Iroquois established their neutrality in the future royal wars of europe powers and resumed endemic disputes with southerly Indians, namely Cherokees, Creeks, and also Catawbas. This situation polarized the political geography of the phibìc American interior, setting northern Indians against southern Indians and leaving Virginia west of the Blue Ridge together a sensitive, extremely strategic an ar in the geopolitical battles of American Indians. The instability the this situation, aggravated by Indian war parties, diplomatic missions, hunting expeditions, and also trading ventures, helps explain the europe occupation that the an ar as a way of securing it in ~ the brother empire.


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If the open-country neighborhoods and also exchange economies identified the first phase of backcountry settlement, climate a town-and-country settlement mechanism was the product of a market transformation in agriculture, the improvement of the landscape, and the advancement of market towns v an attending pecking order of countryside hamlets and local villages. The introduction of this mechanism by the nearby of the eighteenth century significant the end of the frontier period in west Virginia. What taken place after the backcountry ended, however, to be anything but backward. So abundant was the agricultural economy west the the Blue Ridge, through a bountiful commerce pouring out of the an ar as revenues in the flour and livestock trades and into it as imported goods in the consumer revolution, that the region came come be characterized as a “New Virginia” of high farming and also market-town commerce. Enduring sectional patterns arised as Old Virginia continued to be committed to slavery, tobacco, and the politics of fiscal conservatism. The dynamic town-and-country economies west that the Blue Ridge predisposed its individuals to favor banks, inner improvements, and other creates of economic modernization. They voted Federalist in discussions over the constitution and proactively supported the new main government whose economic power to combine interstate and international business constituted the lifeblood of western Virginia in the nineteenth century.

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Therefore the backcountry ended up being a version for trans-Appalachian frontier development. Its significance as a region remains in the heritage of a backcountry to what Virginia remained in the eighteenth century and in a forecountry to what the United states was to become thereafter.