I first wrote about this ten years earlier in 2010 (read that short article here) but perhaps counterintuitively things readjust quickly in astronomy*. So what"s new?
Some the the numbers have changed, and also there space some crucial updates in a couple of of the specifics i beg your pardon I"ll touch on because that each of the planets below, but something you"ll notice immediately is that there is a new #1. Before I gain into the peak 10** I"ll say that the perform hasn"t readjusted because anything has obtained (or lost) any kind of moons; it"s ours understanding and also knowledge that has changed. Also, I"ll carry out it backwards this time because that"s much more fun. And also traditional.

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Mercury has no moons. This is probably because it"s therefore close to the Sun, which yes, really narrows the an ar in i m sorry a moon might be created or captured: too distant and also it would be disturbed through the Sun"s gravitational field. Also close, and it would certainly be damaged up by tidal forces.
Venus has actually no moons either, back there to be a period (from 1645 to about 1770) in i beg your pardon a variety of astronomers assumed they"d caught sight of other orbiting Venus. That was also named ("Neith") but there to be no brand-new sightings after the time or, crucially, during the Venus transits the 1761 and 1769 (which rocked astronomy and had effects that adjusted the world in other methods as well).
The first seven of these space dwarf planets**** quite than planets yet I want a optimal 10 fairly than a height 8 and this is mine blog, so my rules.
Orcus is more than likely a dwarf planet and really definitely falls into probably the cutest-named team of minor plants, the "Plutinos". That is moon is dubbed Vanth and is about 440km in diameter.
Makemake"s moon has the catchy name "S/2015(136472)1" (or "MK2" to its friends). It"s a little bigger than Weywot.
Gonggong"s moon Xiangliu was uncovered during an evaluation of archived images from the Hubble an are Telescope in 2010.
Eris is the well-known dwarf planet with the largest mass, and its moon, Dysnomia, may be the second-largest moon the a dwarf planet, in the an ar of 700km in diameter.
Earth you"ve heard of (I hope), and its moon is the imaginatively titled The Moon. Girlfriend may have actually heard reports of various other moons that Earth but these are regularly speculation, hoaxes, or poor journalism concerning quasi-satellites, trojans and temporary satellites*****.
Haumea is another trans-Neptunian dwarf planet. It has actually two moons, Hi"iaka and Namaka. The 3 bodies room thought to be the result of a collision leading to the split of a larger body at some allude in the far-off past.
Mars"s 2 moons room Phobos and Deimos, both of which room very small in comparison with the world they orbit (see image listed below for comparison).
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Mars, Phobos and Deimos (sizes and distances to scale). They"re there, honest.Nbound in ~ English Wikipedia / publicly domain

Back in 2010 we just knew about 3 of them. Pluto"s no a planet, yet as I currently laid the groundwork ago at #8 for had dwarf planets so everything"s fine. The moons are, in order from closest to furthest indigenous Pluto, Charon (the most well known and also massive enough to it is in vaguely spherical at about fifty percent the diameter and also one-sixth the massive of Pluto), Styx, Nix, Kerberos and also Hydra (which room all lot smaller).
One more than us knew around in 2010. The new one, Hippocamp, was uncovered in 2013 and is sixth closest to Neptune and also the smallest of that moons at just under 35km in diameter. The biggest (and more quickly discovered) is Triton, i beg your pardon was discovered on my -136th birthday, simply 17 job after the exploration of Neptune chin in 1846.
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A picture of Neptune (top) v Triton (bottom) through Voyager 2 top top it"s fly-by in 1989Attribution:NASA / Jet Propulsion lab / windy domain

Unchanged since last time the 27 moons of Uranus are mostly named after personalities from william Shakespeare"s plays. Five of lock are massive enough to have actually reached hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e. They"re nice close to gift spherical) and also these room (in order of enhancing distance indigenous Uranus) Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania and Oberon. These last two were the very first to be uncovered in 1787. The most recently uncovered were Cupid, Mab, Francisco, Margaert and also Ferdinand, every in 2003.
Down to second place is Jupiter through 79 moons (up indigenous 63 in 2010). The most recently discovered is Ersa, around 3 kilometre in diameter and positioned 12th in bespeak of typical distance from Jupiter. The joint-first come be found (and largest) to be Ganymede, Io, Callisto and Europa (in descending stimulate of size) byGalileo Galilei in 1610.
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From left: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (in bespeak of increasing distance from Jupiter - ranges not come scale!)Attribution: NASA/JPL/DLR / publicly domain

Yes, that leaves Saturn in the optimal spot v 82 well-known moons (up indigenous 62 in 2010). The extra 20 were all found in 2019 by a team in ~ the Carnegie institution for Science. You have the right to read your announcement here. The new ones are all around 5 kilometre in diameter and most have actually a retrograde orbit (meaning that they orbit in opposing direction come the one in which Saturn spins). The an initial to be found (also the largest, which has tendency to happen) was Titan in 1655 byChristiaan Huygens, pictured below.
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Saturn"s largest moon, TitanAttribution: NASA/JPL/Space scientific research Institute / public domain

Altogether that"s 219 moons mutual out amongst the bigger bodies that the solar system. That knows just how many more will be discovered in the next ten years? view you for one more update in 2030!
*** Yes, I additionally know the a top 10 perform of planets (in our solar system) might become not quite so precise in at the very least one that those requirements.

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**** few of these room possibledwarf planets (as protest to evidenced dwarf planets) make the criteria because that being ~ above this perform even an ext tenuous. But the variety of moons is solid. Until much more are discovered, the course.