The sunlight does not obtain cold in the winter. The sun is a huge ball that fire driven by nuclear reactions. The surface of the sun continues to be at an incredibly hot temperature of about 5800 Kelvin every year long. The high temperature of the sun reasons it to constantly emit prodigious amounts of thermal radiation in all directions, mostly in the kind of infrared waves, visible light, and also ultraviolet waves. This radiation spreads throughout our solar system and also warms every little thing it hits.
You are watching: Why is it cold in the winter and hot in the summer
Regions of earth are chillier in the winter because the tilt the the earth reasons the sunlight to be spread over a larger area and also therefore be weaker per unit area in this regions. Some human being think the planet gets cooler in the winter due to the fact that the earth is farther far from the sun, but this idea is wrong. In fact, the planet is the furthest from the sunlight in the northern hemisphere"s summer, and not winter. However distance to the sun does not have much effect on the lot of sunshine the planet receives due to the fact that the street to the sunlight does not really readjust that much. The earth is around 150,000,000 kilometers far from the sun. End the course of a year, the distance from the earth to the sun changes by at many 5 million kilometers. To placed this in perspective, the orbit that the earth approximately the sun throughout the year is plotted below to scale. Girlfriend can"t tell, yet at this scale the earth is 302 pixels from the sun once at the leftmost suggest in that orbit and also 298 pixels from the sun as soon as at the rightmost point.
The orbit of the earth about the sun, with all sizes and locations come scale. The white dot near the facility is the sun, and also the blue line is the route of the planet through-out the year. The planet itself is no visible since at this scale it is only 0.02 pixels wide. The street of the earth from the sunlight is much more or less consistent through-out the year. Publicly Domain Image, source: Christopher S. Baird.
The axis of earth"s rotation is tilted about 23 degrees with respect to its orbit roughly the sun. This mean"s that in the north"s summer time, the north hemisphere is tilted towards the sun and also in the winter time, the northern hemisphere is tilted far from the sun. When a an ar of soil is tilted in the direction of the sun in the summer, that method that the sun spends much more time higher in the sky and also the sunlight got by the spot of floor is more direct. In contrast, as soon as that point out on the planet is tilted far from the sun in the winter, the sunlight is in basic lower in the sky, and also it obtain less direct sunlight. Less straight sunlight method that the sunshine is coming in at a short angle, so that it is smeared across a better area once it hits the surface. Since it is smeared over a higher area, winter sunlight has actually less strength per unit area, and also therefore heats the earth less, resulting in cold winters.
As shown here, the northern hemisphere receives less sunlight every unit area once it is tilted away from the sun and experiences the cold of winter. At the same time, the southerly hemisphere is receiving an ext sunlight per unit area due to the fact that it is tilted towards the sun and experiences the warmth of summer. Sunlight is stood for as yellow beams to illustrate the result of edge on spreading. Windy Domain Image, source: Christopher S. Baird.
See more: How To Calculate Plastic Section Modulus Of I Beam, I/H Section (Double
Interestingly, as soon as the north hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, the southerly hemisphere is tilted away. This means that once the north is having actually summer, the southern is having winter and when the north is having winter, the south is having summer. The result of sunshine angle ~ above temperature deserve to be most quickly seen at the extremes. Close to the south pole and the phibìc pole, the sun is always really low in the sky, and the sunlight always comes in at a an extremely low angle. Together a result, the poles space generally very cold. In contrast, near the equator, the sunlight is constantly high in the sky approximately noon and the sunshine is really direct. Together a result, the regions close to the equator space generally an extremely hot.